Because Alcoholics Anonymous was exclusive to people who struggled with alcohol addiction, a vast array of other programs were formed to aid and support those in recovery from other addictive disorders. These include the following groups: ACA –Adult Children of Alcoholics Al-Anon/Alateen (for friends and families of alcoholics) CA –Cocaine Anonymous CLA –Clutterers Anonymous CMA –Crystal Meth Anonymous Co-Anon (for friends and family of addicts) CoDA –Co-Dependents Anonymous (for people working to end patterns of dysfunctional relationships and develop functional and healthy relationships) COSA (an auxiliary group of Sex Addicts Anonymous) COSLAA –CoSex and Love Addicts Anonymous DA –Debtors Anonymous EA –Emotions Anonymous, for recovery from mental and emotional illness FA –Families Anonymous, for relatives and friends of addicts FA –Food Addicts in Recovery Anonymous FAA –Food Addicts Anonymous GA –Gamblers Anonymous Gam-Anon/Gam-A-Teen (for friends and family members of problem gamblers) HA –Heroin Anonymous MA –Marijuana Anonymous NA –Narcotics Anonymous N/A –Neurotics Anonymous (for recovery from mental and emotional illness) Nar-Anon (for friends and family members of addicts) NicA –Nicotine Anonymous OA –Overeaters Anonymous OLGA –Online Gamers Anonymous PA –Pills Anonymous (for recovery from prescription pill addiction) SA –Sexaholics Anonymous SA –Smokers Anonymous SAA –Sex Addicts Anonymous SCA –Sexual Compulsives Anonymous SIA –Survivors of Incest Anonymous SLAA –Sex and Love Addicts Anonymous SRA –Sexual Recovery Anonymous UA –Underearners Anonymous WA –Workaholics Anonymous

Jump up ^ Morse, RM; Flavin, DK (August 1992). "The definition of alcoholism. The Joint Committee of the National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence and the American Society of Addiction Medicine to Study the Definition and Criteria for the Diagnosis of Alcoholism". JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association. 268 (8): 1012–4. doi:10.1001/jama.1992.03490080086030. ISSN 0098-7484. PMID 1501306.


But Twelve-Step Facilitation therapy is still a tried-and-true proven approach. It is far more than advising a patient to “go to AA” and providing them a list of meeting locations and times. In Twelve-Step Faciliation, the therapist actively probes and nudges, encouraging not only attendance, but participation, in meetings; it explains the potential benefits of working with a sponsor and promotes the individual developing a relationship with a sponsor; it explores problems or psychological resistances to attendance, participation, actual “working the steps,” and the development of a sponsor-sponsee relationship; and it opens the door to “AA-related activities” such as volunteer service to one’s AA “home group” or AA “clubhouse” and involvement with AA-related social events, retreats, and local and state conventions.
In a closed AA meeting, the only people who may attend are those who are recovering addicts (or those interested in learning more about overcoming their addiction). Open meetings allow the attendance of friends, spouses and family members. Whether you decide to go to a closed or open meeting depends exclusively on what you’re comfortable with. Some people would rather keep their recovery separate from the rest of their life. Others thrive on the support that loved ones can provide during meetings.
Alcoholics Anonymous is a fellowship of men and women who share their experience, strength and hope with each other that they may solve their common problem and help others to recover from alcoholism. The only requirement for membership is a desire to stop drinking. There are no dues or fees for AA membership; we are self-supporting through our own contributions. AA is not allied with any sect, denomination, organization or institution; does not wish to engage in any controversy, neither endorses nor opposes any causes. Our primary purpose is to stay sober and help other alcoholics to achieve sobriety.

Alcoholics Anonymous is a fellowship of men and women who share their experience, strength and hope with each other that they may solve their common problem and help others to recover from alcoholism. The only requirement for membership is a desire to stop drinking. There are no dues or fees for AA membership; we are self-supporting through our own contributions. AA is not allied with any sect, denomination, politics, organization or institution; does not wish to engage in any controversy, neither endorses nor opposes any causes. Our primary purpose is to stay sober and help other alcoholics to achieve sobriety.
It’s rare for people with alcoholism to strive for that diagnosis. No one grows up wanting to struggle with alcohol for the rest of life. But alcoholism can be sneaky, creeping into life in ways that are subtle and that can pass by unnoticed. For some, alcoholism begins with peer pressure. These people just don’t intend to start drinking, and they may not begin life even enjoying alcohol, but their peers prompt and poke them to drink alcohol. In time, as they comply with these requests from peers, they lose the ability to control how and when they drink.

With a U.S. economy inching laboriously back from recession with a flagging job market in tow, we should be sensitive to hidden costs of this “lifestyle choice.” In a perfect world, we would weigh the right to drink excessively against the $94.2 billion in tax dollars that we spend every year to pay the costs of alcoholism. We should weigh the collective choice against the 1.9 million public school teachers we could hire with that $94.2 billion — or the million public parks that money could build for communities across the country, or the million students we could put through school. And we’d think hard about what cultural shift could moderate this “lifestyle choice” before it becomes disease.
While group therapy can help teens stay sober, groups that include a number of teens who also engage in disordered behaviors can actually tend to increased alcohol use in this age group. Family interventions for alcoholism that tend to be effective for teens include multidimensional family therapy (MDFT), group therapy, and multifamily educational intervention (MFE). MDFT has been found to be quite effective. Longer-term residential treatment, often called rehab, of three to five months that addresses peer relationships, educational problems, and family issues is often used in treating alcohol use disorder in teens.
A chronic, progressive behavioral disorder characterized by a strong urge to consume ethanol and an inability to limit the amount of drinking despite adverse consequences, which may include social or occupational impairment and deterioration of physical health. Both physical dependence (withdrawal symptoms such as nausea, sweating, tremors, and delirium resulting from abstinence) and tolerance (the need to increase alcohol intake to achieve the desired effect) occur.
AA is the most widely available 12-Step program, and meeting times and locations are easily found on the Internet. Our Continuum of Care staff provides recommendations for solution-based meetings with a solid foundation of support. At Origins Behavioral HealthCare, we familiarize our patients with 12-Step meetings during their stay and connect them with 12-Step resources in their own communities.
While 12-Step facilitation programs don’t necessarily follow the steps, they promote the use of a 12-Step methodology, in the hope that clients will move to a 12-Step program after rehab to help maintain sobriety. In addition, certain treatment centers base their model for service around some of the ideas promoted through the 12-Step program. These centers can offer research-based services and promote a more scientific understanding of addiction treatment, but they incorporate some of the spiritual, psychological, and practical practices that the 12-Step program promotes. This results in an encompassing model of care designed to support clients through rehab and to give tools that they can use after treatment to maintain their recovery for the long-term.
Most of the warning signs and symptoms of alcoholism are not difficult to pinpoint. However, there are some that are obvious. Often, an alcoholic will not admit that there is a problem. This could be due to denial, or a true belief no problem exists. Generally speaking, the last person to realize that there is a problem is the alcoholic. He or she will likely deny the existence of a problem until irreparable damage is done. This is why the symptoms of alcoholism are important to recognize.
Within the medical and scientific communities, there is a broad consensus regarding alcoholism as a disease state. For example, the American Medical Association considers alcohol a drug and states that "drug addiction is a chronic, relapsing brain disease characterized by compulsive drug seeking and use despite often devastating consequences. It results from a complex interplay of biological vulnerability, environmental exposure, and developmental factors (e.g., stage of brain maturity)."[111] Alcoholism has a higher prevalence among men, though, in recent decades, the proportion of female alcoholics has increased.[36] Current evidence indicates that in both men and women, alcoholism is 50–60 percent genetically determined, leaving 40–50 percent for environmental influences.[153] Most alcoholics develop alcoholism during adolescence or young adulthood.[69] 31 percent of college students show signs of alcohol abuse, while six percent are dependent on alcohol. Under the DSM's new definition of alcoholics, that means about 37 percent of college students may meet the criteria.[154]
Around a third of individuals with alcohol dependence resolve their alcohol consumption problems without professional intervention. Others need the support of a health professional who can recommend a range of treatments. While there are many effective treatments, people who overcome alcohol dependence often relapse (i.e. develop alcohol dependency once again).

Alcohol use is the fourth leading cause of preventable death in the United States (after smoking, high blood pressure, and obesity). According to a 2018 report from the WHO, in 2016 the harmful use of alcohol resulted in about 3 million deaths, or 5.3% of all deaths around the world, with most of these occurring among men. [1, 2] The economic costs of excessive alcohol consumption in 2010 were estimated at $249 billion, or $2.05 a drink. [3]
If someone you love has a drinking problem, you may be struggling with a number of painful emotions, including shame, fear, anger, and self-blame. The problem may be so overwhelming that it seems easier to ignore it and pretend that nothing is wrong. But in the long run denying it will be more damaging to you, other family members, and the person with the drinking problem.
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When alcoholism affects a spouse or partner, it’s possible to become too wrapped up in their well-being. This is called codependency. You may get to the point where you feel compelled to help your person get well. However, family members and friends often have deep emotional ties that prevent them from having the objective viewpoint necessary for treatment.
Alcoholism is characterised by an increased tolerance to alcohol–which means that an individual can consume more alcohol–and physical dependence on alcohol, which makes it hard for an individual to control their consumption. The physical dependency caused by alcohol can lead to an affected individual having a very strong urge to drink alcohol. These characteristics play a role decreasing an alcoholic's ability to stop drinking.[25] Alcoholism can have adverse effects on mental health, causing psychiatric disorders and increasing the risk of suicide. A depressed mood is a common symptom of heavy alcohol drinkers.[26][27]
In collaboration with University of Texas Southwestern (UTSW) psychiatrists, we provide truly integrated care for mental and behavioral health and substance abuse issues. Our expert team is led by Dr. David Atkinson, a full-time psychiatrist who is dually board certified in child adolescent psychiatry and addiction psychiatry. His addiction fellowship training at Mayo Clinic helped him understand the addiction treatment process and its connection to many teens’ mental health issues.

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Average member sobriety is slightly under 10 years with 36% sober more than ten years, 13% sober from five to ten years, 24% sober from one to five years, and 27% sober less than one year.[64] Before coming to AA, 63% of members received some type of treatment or counseling, such as medical, psychological, or spiritual. After coming to AA, 59% received outside treatment or counseling. Of those members, 84% said that outside help played an important part in their recovery.[64]
Risk factors for developing problems with alcohol arise from many interconnected factors, including your genetics, how you were raised, your social environment, and your emotional health. Some racial groups, such as American Indians and Native Alaskans, are more at risk than others of developing drinking problems or alcohol addiction. People who have a family history of alcoholism or who associate closely with heavy drinkers are more likely to develop drinking problems. Finally, those who suffer from a mental health problem such as anxiety, depression, or bipolar disorder are also particularly at risk, because alcohol is often used to self-medicate.
Excessive alcohol consumption is correlated with increased risk of stroke, liver disease, and decreased life expectancy. In fact, binge drinking during only the weekends is still enough to damage the liver, studies show, and moderate drinking interferes with sleep quality by interrupting circadian rhythms and REM sleep. However, a number of different treatment options are available to address alcoholic dysfunction.
When you're putting money into your health, your future and your family's happiness, you need to make sure you're making the right decision for your Cheyenne alcohol and drug abuse rehabilitation clinic. While the best alternative may still be to speak to our hotline advisors so they can discuss your individual requirements, reading how others have reviewed or rated some of the addiction rehab clinics in or around your area is another great way to start.
Fact: Alcohol is a drug, and alcoholism is every bit as damaging as drug addiction. Alcohol addiction causes changes in the body and brain, and long-term alcohol abuse can have devastating effects on your health, your career, and your relationships. Alcoholics go through physical withdrawal when they stop drinking, just like drug users do when they quit.

AA meetings are "quasi-ritualized therapeutic sessions run by and for, alcoholics".[41] They are usually informal and often feature discussions. Local AA directories list a variety of weekly meetings. Those listed as "closed" are available to those with a self professed "desire to stop drinking," which cannot be challenged by another member on any grounds.[4] "Open" meetings are available to anyone (nonalcoholics can attend as observers).[42] At speaker meetings, one or two members tell their stories, while discussion meetings allocate the most time for general discussion. Some meetings are devoted to studying and discussing the AA literature.[43]
The World Health Organization estimates that as of 2010 there were 208 million people with alcoholism worldwide (4.1% of the population over 15 years of age).[9][10] In the United States, about 17 million (7%) of adults and 0.7 million (2.8%) of those age 12 to 17 years of age are affected.[11] It is more common among males and young adults, becoming less common in middle and old age.[3] It is the least common in Africa, at 1.1%, and has the highest rates in Eastern Europe, at 11%.[3] Alcoholism directly resulted in 139,000 deaths in 2013, up from 112,000 deaths in 1990.[21] A total of 3.3 million deaths (5.9% of all deaths) are believed to be due to alcohol.[11] It often reduces a person's life expectancy by around ten years.[22] In the United States, it resulted in economic costs of $224 billion USD in 2006.[11] Many terms, some insulting and others informal, have been used to refer to people affected by alcoholism; the expressions include tippler, drunkard, dipsomaniac and souse.[23] In 1979, the World Health Organization discouraged the use of "alcoholism" due to its inexact meaning, preferring "alcohol dependence syndrome".[24]

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Detoxification begins 4–6 hours after the last consumption of alcohol and lasts for 5–7 days. In this period, diazepam is administered every six hours to control the detoxification process and withdrawal symptoms. While detoxification often occurs in hospitals, some people undergo detoxification in their homes. However, patients should not consider undergoing detoxification at home if they have suicidal feelings, do not have friends and family to support them, or have experienced severe withdrawal symptoms before.
Alcohol dependency occurs on a continuum. Many Australians are only moderately or mildly dependent on alcohol (e.g. they may find it difficult to stop drinking once they start). They do not exhibit physical withdrawals like those with severe alcohol dependence, and do not consider their drinking patterns problematic. This may be because the major health and social consequences of alcohol dependence (with the exclusion of violence) do not begin when an individual first becomes alcohol dependent. For example, it may take years for an individual who is alcohol dependent to have financial or relationship problems as a result of drinking. In many cases chronic excessive drinking may have no immediate health and social consequences.
Following detoxification, social support to abstain from or moderate drinking is needed for an extended period of time. It is useful for individuals who are recovering from alcohol dependence to identify people who can support them through the process, as it can still be very difficult not to drink alcohol, or to drink in moderation following detoxification. People who have difficulty may wish to investigate whether there is medication which can help them stay away from alcohol. There are range of prescription medicines which might assist some people. Talk to a doctor before taking any medication.
Experience Recovery withdrawal management services are provided in a residential setting allowing clients to recover in a peaceful, home-like atmosphere. A wide range of withdrawal management services are organized within a comprehensive therapeutic environment that includes diagnostic determination, individual withdrawal management plans, psychiatric consultations if needed, medication education, individual counseling, individualized treatment planning, client advocacy, referral to community providers and discharge planning. Services are provided by licensed/certified clinicians and medical professionals. For more information Please Call (888) 988-3971.
Alcohol biomarkers are physiologic indicators of alcohol exposure or ingestion and may reflect the presence of an alcohol use disorder. These biomarkers are not meant to be a substitute for a comprehensive history and physical examination. Indirect alcohol biomarkers, which suggest heavy alcohol use by detecting the toxic effects of alcohol, include the following [4] :
Alcohol detoxification or 'detox' for alcoholics is an abrupt stop of alcohol drinking coupled with the substitution of drugs, such as benzodiazepines, that have similar effects to prevent alcohol withdrawal. Individuals who are only at risk of mild to moderate withdrawal symptoms can be detoxified as outpatients. Individuals at risk of a severe withdrawal syndrome as well as those who have significant or acute comorbid conditions are generally treated as inpatients. Detoxification does not actually treat alcoholism, and it is necessary to follow up detoxification with an appropriate treatment program for alcohol dependence or abuse to reduce the risk of relapse.[7] Some symptoms of alcohol withdrawal such as depressed mood and anxiety typically take weeks or months to abate while other symptoms persist longer due to persisting neuroadaptations.[65] Alcoholism has serious adverse effects on brain function; on average it takes one year of abstinence to recover from the cognitive deficits incurred by chronic alcohol abuse.[126]
Since Alcoholics Anonymous was founded in the 1930s, 12-step treatment models have gained widespread acceptance among psychologists, therapists, social workers and medical doctors. Twelve-step groups like AA have also become a gold standard of recovery for many members of the general public. What makes the 12 steps such an effective model for drug and alcohol rehab? The psychology behind these principles indicates that these non-profit, mutual self-help groups fulfill several important needs, such as:
Severe childhood trauma is also associated with a general increase in the risk of drug dependency.[69] Lack of peer and family support is associated with an increased risk of alcoholism developing.[69] Genetics and adolescence are associated with an increased sensitivity to the neurotoxic effects of chronic alcohol abuse. Cortical degeneration due to the neurotoxic effects increases impulsive behaviour, which may contribute to the development, persistence and severity of alcohol use disorders. There is evidence that with abstinence, there is a reversal of at least some of the alcohol induced central nervous system damage.[74] The use of cannabis was associated with later problems with alcohol use.[75] Alcohol use was associated with an increased probability of later use of tobacco, cannabis, and other illegal drugs.[76]
Prevention of alcoholism may be attempted by regulating and limiting the sale of alcohol, taxing alcohol to increase its cost, and providing inexpensive treatment.[17] Treatment may take several steps.[7] Due to medical problems that can occur during withdrawal, alcohol detoxification should be carefully controlled.[7] One common method involves the use of benzodiazepine medications, such as diazepam.[7] These can be either given while admitted to a health care institution or occasionally while a person remains in the community with close supervision.[7] Mental illness or other addictions may complicate treatment.[18] After detoxification, support such as group therapy or support groups are used to help keep a person from returning to drinking.[6][19] One commonly used form of support is the group Alcoholics Anonymous.[20] The medications acamprosate, disulfiram or naltrexone may also be used to help prevent further drinking.[8]
As with similar substances with a sedative-hypnotic mechanism, such as barbiturates and benzodiazepines, withdrawal from alcohol dependence can be fatal if it is not properly managed.[55][61] Alcohol's primary effect is the increase in stimulation of the GABAA receptor, promoting central nervous system depression. With repeated heavy consumption of alcohol, these receptors are desensitized and reduced in number, resulting in tolerance and physical dependence. When alcohol consumption is stopped too abruptly, the person's nervous system suffers from uncontrolled synapse firing. This can result in symptoms that include anxiety, life-threatening seizures, delirium tremens, hallucinations, shakes and possible heart failure.[62][63] Other neurotransmitter systems are also involved, especially dopamine, NMDA and glutamate.[25][64]

Twelve-Step Recovery addresses the psychology of the person with addiction as well as the individual’s spirituality--his/her values, his/her connectedness to others, and his/her willingness to engage with others and humbly ask for help. The process of change in Twelve-Step Recovery starts with an acceptance that when friends or loved ones point out that things are amiss in one’s life, they are likely correct, and things have likely become unmanageable. And while taking personal responsibility and accepting accountability for one’s actions are considered key steps, Twelve-Step Recovery outlines that excessive self-reliance and the firm stance that “I can get myself out of this,” and “I know what to do about this,” will be roadblocks to recovery from addiction. “Getting out of oneself” and recognizing that one doesn’t have all the answers, and humbly asking for help from another human being—from a health professional or from a lay person—are behaviors and behavioral styles that are promoted by Alcoholics Anonymous and related “Twelve-Step” programs of peer support.
The program is available for patients who are otherwise healthy; specifically, specifically, those who do not have acute or significant heart disease, insulin dependent diabetes that is well controlled with an A1C at or above 7, sleep apnea not controlled or a Body Mass Index (BMI) over 42, as individuals with these conditions are best suited recovering in a hospital setting.

The long-term effects of alcohol use disorder can be devastating and even life-threatening. Chronic excessive alcohol consumption can negatively affect virtually every organ system. Specific examples of alcohol-use disorder effects on the body include everything from general effects like poor coordination, thiamine deficiency, and other forms of poor nutrition, cardiovascular effects like hypertension and irregular heartbeat, reproductive effects like impotence and irregular menses, as well as gastrointestinal problems like jaundice, cirrhosis of the liver, and pancreatitis. Alcohol-use disorder complications that involve the brain include, but are by no means limited to, strokes, confusion, and amnesia. Thiamine deficiency that is associated with alcohol use disorder can progress to the point that the sufferer develops vision problems, confusion, and trouble walking (Wernicke's encephalopathy), eventually followed by trouble caring for themselves and memory problems that the person tries to cover for by making things up/confabulating information (Korsakoff syndrome).
The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) for 2015 found that 86.4 percent of the population ages 18 and older consumed alcohol at some point in their lives; about 56 percent reported that they drank in the past month, indicating a pattern of regular alcohol consumption. Alcohol is legal in the US for people ages 21 and older to consume, but as an intoxicating substance, it is dangerous and can lead to addiction. The NSDUH also found that 26.9 percent of the population engaged in binge drinking in the past month (more than four drinks within two hours), and 7 percent reported that they drank heavily in the past month (more than two drinks per day). These behaviors indicate higher risk for AUD.

Many people with alcohol use disorder hesitate to get treatment because they don't recognize they have a problem. An intervention from loved ones can help some people recognize and accept that they need professional help. If you're concerned about someone who drinks too much, ask a professional experienced in alcohol treatment for advice on how to approach that person.


Twelve-step methods have been adapted to address a wide range of alcoholism, substance-abuse and dependency problems. Over 200 self-help organizations—often known as fellowships—with a worldwide membership of millions—now employ twelve-step principles for recovery. Narcotics Anonymous was formed by addicts who did not relate to the specifics of alcohol dependency.[3]
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