This is the big one. Many scientific arguments for hereditary alcoholism have been made. In fact, we have an extensive article on the topic, worth the read. While less than 20% of alcohol users actually become alcoholics, there are over 930 genes associated with alcohol use, and there is absolutely a genetic factor in risk for alcoholism. Perhaps the one-fifth of drinkers that do develop a disorder is genetically predisposed somehow. More research must be done to say for sure.
Recovery is an interesting concept. It implies not only improvement, but potentially remission. The term describes a process as well as a destination. And the underlying premise of recovery is that of hope--hope that a person with a potentially fatal illness can avoid a catastrophic outcome. “Recovery activities” are not professional treatment, but can promote recovery just as professional treatment can. One of the most familiar “recovery activities” engaged in by persons with addiction is participation in the activities of Alcoholics Anonymous (AA).

Sessions led by peers, in which recovering alcoholics meet regularly and provide support for each other's recoveries, are considered among the best methods of preventing a return to drinking. The best-known group following this model is Alcoholics Anonymous (AA), which uses a 12-step program and a buddy (sponsor) system to help people avoid drinking. The AA steps involve recognizing the destructive power that alcohol has held over the individual's life, looking to a higher power for help in overcoming the problem, reflecting on the ways in which the use of alcohol has hurt others and, if possible, making amends to those people. According to the American Psychological Association (APA), anyone, regardless of his or her religious beliefs or lack of religious beliefs, can benefit from participation in 12-step programs such as AA. The number of visits to 12-step self-help groups exceeds the number of visits to all mental health professionals combined.
Substance abuse A condition characterized by a pathologic pattern of alcohol use causing a serious impairment in social or occupational functioning; also defined as a '…primary, chronic, disease with genetic, psychosocial, and environmental factors influencing its development and manifestations. The disease is often progressive and fatal. It is characterized by … distortions in thinking, most notably denial'; alcoholism is characterized by the regular intake of ≥ 75 g/day of alcohol Chronic effects Co-morbidity due to portal HTN, hepatic failure, hyperestrogenemia, infections–especially pneumonia, which may be due to alcohol-induced suppression of various immune defenses, psychosocial disruption, transient hyperparathyroidism with ↓ Ca2+, ↓ Mg2+, osteoporosis. See Blood alcohol levels, Standard drink.

We are excited by the launch of our new Alcoholics Resource Center web site and hope that each of you will share in that excitement. The purpose of this site is to provide information and social networking to support our fellow AA members. We believe that this site will meet a need for those interested in all matters related to AA within the scope of the Traditions.


The basic premise of the 12-Step model is that people can help one another achieve and maintain abstinence from the substances or behaviors to which they are addicted. They can do this through meetings in which they share their experiences with one another and support each other in the ongoing effort of maintaining abstinence. In research, as seen in a recent article from the journal Addiction Research and Theory, abstinence practices (as supported by 12-Step programs) can account for high levels of what experts call flourishing, which is positive mental health and can contribute to longer-term recovery. In the study, those who maintained abstinence were more likely to flourish in the long-term, with 40.7 percent flourishing after three months (as compared to 9.3 percent languishing) and nearly 40 percent flourishing after 12 months (compared to 12.4 percent languishing).
The World Health Organization, the European Union and other regional bodies, national governments and parliaments have formed alcohol policies in order to reduce the harm of alcoholism.[122][123] Targeting adolescents and young adults is regarded as an important step to reduce the harm of alcohol abuse. Increasing the age at which licit drugs of abuse such as alcohol can be purchased, the banning or restricting advertising of alcohol has been recommended as additional ways of reducing the harm of alcohol dependence and abuse. Credible, evidence based educational campaigns in the mass media about the consequences of alcohol abuse have been recommended. Guidelines for parents to prevent alcohol abuse amongst adolescents, and for helping young people with mental health problems have also been suggested.[124]
Alcohol intoxication results as the amount of alcohol in your bloodstream increases. The higher the blood alcohol concentration is, the more impaired you become. Alcohol intoxication causes behavior problems and mental changes. These may include inappropriate behavior, unstable moods, impaired judgment, slurred speech, impaired attention or memory, and poor coordination. You can also have periods called "blackouts," where you don't remember events. Very high blood alcohol levels can lead to coma or even death.
Blood. Alcohol may cause changes to all the types of blood cells. Red blood cells become abnormally large. White blood cells (important for fighting infections) decrease in number, resulting in a weakened immune system. This places alcohol-dependent individuals at increased risk for infections and may account in part for the increased risk of cancer faced by people with alcoholism. Platelets and blood clotting factors are affected, causing an increased risk of bleeding.

Alcoholism is a disease that can affect both children and adults, but it doesn’t affect everyone the same way. For some people, just one drink can result in intoxication, while for others, many more drinks are necessary to create the same effect. A “drink” is classified as 12 ounces of beer, 5 ounces of wine or 1.5 ounces of distilled spirits, according to the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA). In terms of the effects on the body and brain, excessive alcohol consumption can increase the risk for various health issues for any user. The big question is: Are the effects of alcoholism reversible?


What's to know about alcoholic liver disease? Alcoholic liver disease is the primary cause of chronic liver disease in the U.S. and can be fatal. It occurs as a result of chronic excessive consumption of alcohol. The first step of treatment will be to remove alcohol from the diet, but a liver transplant may also be necessary. Learn more about the disease here. Read now
Not all alcohol abusers become full-blown alcoholics, but it is a big risk factor. Sometimes alcoholism develops suddenly in response to a stressful change, such as a breakup, retirement, or another loss. Other times, it gradually creeps up on you as your tolerance to alcohol increases. If you’re a binge drinker or you drink every day, the risks of developing alcoholism are greater.

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Most experts believe that a research-based, residential treatment program that is customized to an individual’s needs is the most effective method to achieve and maintain recovery. Whether this program includes 12-Step aspects, is based on the 12-Step concept, or is an alternative to this original model of addiction treatment, it’s important that care is customized to the individual. Working with an addiction treatment professional is a good way to find the treatment modality that is appropriate for each person, leading to the best path to recovery.
To share their method, Wilson and other members wrote the initially-titled book, Alcoholics Anonymous: The Story of How More Than One Hundred Men Have Recovered from Alcoholism,[21] from which AA drew its name. Informally known as "The Big Book" (with its first 164 pages virtually unchanged since the 1939 edition), it suggests a twelve-step program in which members admit that they are powerless over alcohol and need help from a "higher power". They seek guidance and strength through prayer and meditation from God or a Higher Power of their own understanding; take a moral inventory with care to include resentments; list and become ready to remove character defects; list and make amends to those harmed; continue to take a moral inventory, pray, meditate, and try to help other alcoholics recover. The second half of the book, "Personal Stories" (subject to additions, removal and retitling in subsequent editions), is made of AA members' redemptive autobiographical sketches. [22]
The first book written to cover the 12 step program was titled "Alcoholics Anonymous", affectionately known as the Big Book by program members. Following the subsequent extensive growth of twelve step programs for other addictive and dysfunctional behaviors, many additional books were written and recordings and videos were produced. These cover the steps in greater detail and how people have specifically applied the steps in their lives. An extensive chronology and background about the history of A.A. has been put together at Dick B.'s website.
Located in the heart of Casper, Wyoming, Wyoming Recovery takes a personal approach to your rehabilitation process. With a quaint 17-bed facility, we take a one-on-one approach to your recovery. While we use the 12-step program for alcohol abuse and alcohol dependency, we have an effective and reliable holistic approach to all forms of recovery in the Casper, Wyoming area.

Feeling a "kinship of common suffering" and, though drunk, Wilson attended his first Group gathering. Within days, Wilson admitted himself to the Charles B. Towns Hospital after drinking four beers on the way—the last alcohol he ever drank. Under the care of William Duncan Silkworth (an early benefactor of AA), Wilson's detox included the deliriant belladonna.[16] At the hospital a despairing Wilson experienced a bright flash of light, which he felt to be God revealing himself.[17] Following his hospital discharge Wilson joined the Oxford Group and recruited other alcoholics to the Group. Wilson's early efforts to help others become sober were ineffective, prompting Silkworth to suggest that Wilson place less stress on religion and more on "the science" of treating alcoholism. Wilson's first success came during a business trip to Akron, Ohio, where he was introduced to Robert Smith, a surgeon and Oxford Group member who was unable to stay sober. After thirty days of working with Wilson, Smith drank his last drink on 10 June 1935, the date marked by AA for its anniversaries.[18]
Dr.Miller, if it were that simple, we wouldn't be discussing the issue at all. I have experienced both sides of the fence so to speak. I've been the guy in the back of the room who couldn't put 24 hours of sobriety together, life in shambles, family gone, and without the ability to function in society.   On the other hand I have worked in the treatment field, worked the program in every aspect of my life, as well as sponsored countless people.  The sponsorship is where I have the "BEGINNING" of difficulty, not that it's all bad. Especially when it comes to forth step.  A person who has resentments should be made to see their part in their resentment. All to often though the addict is made to blame.  A sponsee of mine was raped in jail and he had put it on his forth step.  So he had sexual issues, self worth issues, ECT.  I deferred to my sponsor on how to deal with such a resentment. He and his sponsor both told me to tell the kid, yea, it was bad, but you put yourself In jail, so it your fault. I've taken enough psychology to know you never under any circumstances  tell a rape victim it's their fault that they were raped. I told him to defer to a mental health professional, and for a time he improved. Later after being forced back into AA by the legal system he was again told on a fourth step that it was his fault for being raped. But this crazy "tough love", "it's your fault"  "now learn some humility and fix it", kind of thinking permeates AA to it's core.  The kid did stay sober, his determination was so strong the police found him with both barrels of a shotgun in his mouth and the back of his head splattered against the wall. Next to him they found and unopened bottle of wiskey and a note saying "this is how bad I don't want to drink". You see, he had floundered in AA and so of course the finger was pointed  at him for failure, by his family, by the program, and most people he knew. This is just one of countless horror stories. If you look at the founder. I realize that most believe AA  was co founded by Dr. Robert Smith M.D.  In reality, Dr. Bob was the first person to have tried the program and had any success. Everyone Bill Wilson tried his program on previously failed miserably. But looking at the heart of the origins of the program, and I dont mean the Oxford groups of whom Bill Wilson would derive his 12 steps from their 6 step program, I mean at the thinking of Bill Wilson himself. He says in his biography that he had a literal disease that left him virtually powerless over every vice and compulsion he indulged in.  AND I don't say this to degrade In anyway the hardworking and caring people of AA. Heaven knows, the vast overwhelming majority of AA's have their hearts in the right place, but the whole thing is based on an excuse. The idea of having a disease took the heat off of Bill.  The program  slowly built up around that notion that there's a disease to blame. After 20 years of life experience, and a lot of academia,  I believe the problem lies in unintentional conditioning. Really a learning disorder to put it in other terms. Susceptible individuals, usually because of one form of trauma or another seek out relief. By repeated chemical administration the brain slowly starts to think that chemical is necessary for survival. Probably because the instinctual systems become involved. When a compulsion is more powerful than a individuals desire for oxygen, and food ECT.  Words are useless, consequences will have no effect. Mostly because a person can't directly access the sub conscience.  But you can unlearn something. Email me for the real solution

The Steps start from a basic acceptance that we can control and change only ourselves and our own reactions to people and events. Twelve Step participants take ongoing inventory of themselves and honestly acknowledge the ways they have hurt themselves and others. When they are ready, they attempt to make amends to all persons they have harmed. Trust, acceptance, love, goodwill and forgiveness are key elements in a Twelve Step program just as they are important elements of any healthy relationship.
SMART Recovery: As previously mentioned, Self-Management and Recovery Training (SMART Recovery), is based on scientific research and is always evolving to match the latest knowledge in the field of addiction treatment. Like the 12 Steps, SMART Recovery is broken down into multiple stages, but focused on motivation, creating an overall positive atmosphere, and changing not just behaviors but also the emotions and thoughts behind them.
In asking questions about mental health symptoms, mental health professionals are often exploring if the individual suffers from alcohol or other drug abuse or dependence disorders, as well as depression and/or manic symptoms, anxiety, hallucinations, or delusions or behavioral disorders. Physicians may provide the people they evaluate with a quiz or self-test as a screening tool for substance-use disorders. Since some of the symptoms of alcohol use disorder can also occur in other mental illnesses, the mental health screening is to determine if the individual suffers from a mood disorder or anxiety disorder, as well as schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, and other psychotic disorders, or personality or behavior disorders like attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
If someone you love has a drinking problem, you may be struggling with a number of painful emotions, including shame, fear, anger, and self-blame. The problem may be so overwhelming that it seems easier to ignore it and pretend that nothing is wrong. But in the long run denying it will be more damaging to you, other family members, and the person with the drinking problem.
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In my 30 years as an addiction counselor I've been amazed by the practically obsessive attempts to push the 12-step philosophy to the forefront of treatment methodology, and to ignore research.  Does anyone remember that Bill W. once remarked that he never considered AA to be a panacea for addiction?  In fact, few people know he considered the nutritional therapy of Vitamin B3 to be perhaps the most effective means of treating symptoms of depression he found closely linked to alcoholism.  He wanted to be remembered more for promoting B3 therapy than AA itself.  The point is, support is support, and science is science.  I've never had any qualms whatsoever about my clients attending AA or NA meetings. It's their free time; they can attend or not.  If my role is to teach or persuade them to go, why do I need a clinical license and a Master's Degree?  Why did I need to take exams? (Which, by the way, never 'assessed' my ability as AA promoter.) I take my work more seriously than just encouraging support group concepts or involvement.  I see my role alternately as providing up-to-date information about behavioral therapies, relapse prevention approaches, and being a force for connection and inspiration.  We should be appalled by the slow transfer of research to practice.  There's a lot more we can do for our clients, and we're not doing it.  I think it's high time for the traditionalists in our field to recognize that our clients need the benefits of science, not more AA instruction and orientation.  
Many people with alcohol use disorder hesitate to get treatment because they don't recognize they have a problem. An intervention from loved ones can help some people recognize and accept that they need professional help. If you're concerned about someone who drinks too much, ask a professional experienced in alcohol treatment for advice on how to approach that person.

Because the 12-step philosophy is proven to be one of the most successful approaches to managing the disease of addiction, many drug and alcohol rehab programs have integrated these steps into their treatment models. If you enter an inpatient or outpatient rehab program these days, you’re likely to have the opportunity to learn about 12-step recovery strategies or to participate in 12-step meetings.
While the program is neither religious nor mystical, it is considered spiritual in that members realize they are not the center of the universe. A higher power is at work, but that higher power can be defined however one chooses. Love, God, nature, conscience, the positive energy in a group of caring people, or an unnamed sense of spirit are all examples of higher powers.

Functional subtype: Representing about 19 percent of those struggling with AUD in the study, this group is typically middle aged and, on the surface, appears to have their lives together. They have higher income, more education, and stable relationships compared to other adults struggling with AUD. They drink, on average, every other day, and tend to binge drink on those days.
If there is a problem with the Seagate file recovery suite that cannot be directly resolved by the customer service representatives, they will guide you through the steps of enabling and sending a LOG that allows the developers of the software to further understand the issue. This function was created to help pinpoint the bug(s) that are not allowing you, the User, to have an easy and care free file recovery experience.
Rational Recovery (RR). This secular, non-12-step recovery program mainly utilizes Addictive Voice Recognition Techniques. The techniques enable individuals to identify and manage the "Addictive Voice"—which is defined as any thought or feeling that supports the continued use of drugs and alcohol. The program encourages individuals to make a commitment to abstinence. Unlike other addiction recovery programs, attendance of RR support groups is not considered necessary once an individual has learned the techniques.
Tell your loved one that you’re worried they’re drinking too much, and let them know you want to be supportive. Be prepared to face a negative reaction. Try to roll with any resistance to your suggestions. The person may be in denial, and they may even react angrily to your attempts. Do not take it personally. Give them time and space to make an honest decision, and listen to what they have to say.

Long-term misuse of alcohol can cause a wide range of mental health problems. Severe cognitive problems are common; approximately 10 percent of all dementia cases are related to alcohol consumption, making it the second leading cause of dementia.[40] Excessive alcohol use causes damage to brain function, and psychological health can be increasingly affected over time.[41] Social skills are significantly impaired in people suffering from alcoholism due to the neurotoxic effects of alcohol on the brain, especially the prefrontal cortex area of the brain. The social skills that are impaired by alcohol abuse include impairments in perceiving facial emotions, prosody perception problems and theory of mind deficits; the ability to understand humour is also impaired in alcohol abusers.[42] Psychiatric disorders are common in alcoholics, with as many as 25 percent suffering severe psychiatric disturbances. The most prevalent psychiatric symptoms are anxiety and depression disorders. Psychiatric symptoms usually initially worsen during alcohol withdrawal, but typically improve or disappear with continued abstinence.[43] Psychosis, confusion, and organic brain syndrome may be caused by alcohol misuse, which can lead to a misdiagnosis such as schizophrenia.[44] Panic disorder can develop or worsen as a direct result of long-term alcohol misuse.[45][46]


This may be due to the fact that the data stored on the device has been corrupted, either a segment of the binary data is gone or the data has been overwritten by another file. Most file recovery software will find the remnants of theses corrupted files. However, because they are incomplete it is very unlikely the file will open. When it comes to the Seagate file recovery suite, there are some cases where a file was found by the software and is labeled as “Good” integrity, but may be a corrupt file.

The Big Book was originally written as a guide for people who couldn’t attend AA fellowship meetings, but it soon became a model for the program in general. It has since been adopted as a model for a wide range of addiction peer-support and self-help programs designed to help drive behavioral change. In addition to the original Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) group, various offshoots now exist, such as Narcotics Anonymous (NA), Heroin Anonymous (HA), and Gamblers Anonymous (GA).
The only requirement for membership is a desire to stop drinking. There are no dues or fees for A.A. membership; we are self-supporting through our own contributions. A.A. is not allied with any sect, denomination, politics, organization or institution; does not wish to engage in any controversy; neither endorses nor opposes any causes. Our primary purpose is to stay sober and help other alcoholics to achieve sobriety.
observations The most frequent medical consequences of alcoholism are central nervous system depression and cirrhosis. The severity of each may be greater in the absence of food intake. Alcoholic patients also may suffer from alcoholic gastritis, peripheral neuropathies, auditory hallucinations, and cardiac problems. Abrupt withdrawal of alcohol in addiction causes weakness, sweating, and hyperreflexia. The severe form of alcohol withdrawal is delirium tremens.
The primary purpose of our website is to help readers find information about the location, times, and addresses of meetings of Area 37 groups and districts so he or she can make direct, face-to-face contact with A.A. This website will not be used to establish or encourage email exchanges, chat meetings, or contacts that lead to similar online activities. All information is provided solely for the purpose of helping the alcoholic make direct, face-to-face contact with A.A.
Alcoholism formerly called alcohol dependence or alcohol addiction, is the more severe end of the alcohol use disorder spectrum. It is a destructive pattern of alcohol use that includes tolerance to or withdrawal from the substance, using more alcohol or using it for longer than planned, and trouble reducing its use or inability to use it in moderation. Other potential symptoms include spending an inordinate amount of time getting, using, or recovering from the use of alcohol, compromised functioning, and/or continuing to use alcohol despite an awareness of the detrimental effects it is having on one's life.
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During Step 5, a trusted support person should be selected, after sins are confessed to the higher power, who can help individuals to move forward and leave the past behind them. Addiction can be isolating as individuals shrink into themselves, and Step 5 is often the first step toward opening up to others. It can be difficult to admit to oneself any wrongdoings and even harder to then share them with others. During Step 5, individuals are often humbled and then feel cleansed moving forward, leaving negativity in the past.
Alcoholism formerly called alcohol dependence or alcohol addiction, is the more severe end of the alcohol use disorder spectrum. It is a destructive pattern of alcohol use that includes tolerance to or withdrawal from the substance, using more alcohol or using it for longer than planned, and trouble reducing its use or inability to use it in moderation. Other potential symptoms include spending an inordinate amount of time getting, using, or recovering from the use of alcohol, compromised functioning, and/or continuing to use alcohol despite an awareness of the detrimental effects it is having on one's life.

Having more than one drink a day for women or two drinks for men increases the risk of heart disease, high blood pressure, atrial fibrillation, and stroke.[29] Risk is greater in younger people due to binge drinking, which may result in violence or accidents.[29] About 3.3 million deaths (5.9% of all deaths) are believed to be due to alcohol each year.[11] Alcoholism reduces a person's life expectancy by around ten years[22] and alcohol use is the third leading cause of early death in the United States.[29] No professional medical association recommends that people who are nondrinkers should start drinking wine.[29][30] Long-term alcohol abuse can cause a number of physical symptoms, including cirrhosis of the liver, pancreatitis, epilepsy, polyneuropathy, alcoholic dementia, heart disease, nutritional deficiencies, peptic ulcers[31] and sexual dysfunction, and can eventually be fatal. Other physical effects include an increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease, malabsorption, alcoholic liver disease, and several cancers. Damage to the central nervous system and peripheral nervous system can occur from sustained alcohol consumption.[32][33] A wide range of immunologic defects can result and there may be a generalized skeletal fragility, in addition to a recognized tendency to accidental injury, resulting a propensity to bone fractures.[34]
Acamprosate may stabilise the brain chemistry that is altered due to alcohol dependence via antagonising the actions of glutamate, a neurotransmitter which is hyperactive in the post-withdrawal phase.[132] By reducing excessive NMDA activity which occurs at the onset of alcohol withdrawal, acamprosate can reduce or prevent alcohol withdrawal related neurotoxicity.[133] Acamprosate reduces the risk of relapse amongst alcohol-dependent persons.[134][135]
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Despite the criticisms and controversies, Alcoholics Anonymous remains a cultural force for treatment, rehabilitation, personal growth, and sobriety. The programs claims it has more than 2 million members globally, and reports that 33 percent of the 8,000 members in North America retained their sobriety for at least 10 years. It’s not for everyone, agrees Psych Central, but for many, it has made a life-changing difference.
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