There are many clues which can lead a doctor to suspect a patient is alcohol dependent, and will not usually require a physical examination. For example, a doctor may suspect alcohol dependence if a patient often asks for a medical certificate for time off work, has a mental health problem (e.g. depression) or physical conditions associated with alcohol consumption (especially liver cirrhosis). In such cases, a good doctor will ask the patient questions about their alcohol consumption patterns, or ask them to complete a questionnaire about alcohol, to assess whether or not their alcohol consumption is presenting a health risk.
The DSM-IV diagnosis of alcohol dependence represents one approach to the definition of alcoholism. In part, this is to assist in the development of research protocols in which findings can be compared to one another. According to the DSM-IV, an alcohol dependence diagnosis is: "maladaptive alcohol use with clinically significant impairment as manifested by at least three of the following within any one-year period: tolerance; withdrawal; taken in greater amounts or over longer time course than intended; desire or unsuccessful attempts to cut down or control use; great deal of time spent obtaining, using, or recovering from use; social, occupational, or recreational activities given up or reduced; continued use despite knowledge of physical or psychological sequelae."[104] Despite the imprecision inherent in the term, there have been attempts to define how the word alcoholism should be interpreted when encountered. In 1992, it was defined by the National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence (NCADD) and ASAM as "a primary, chronic disease characterized by impaired control over drinking, preoccupation with the drug alcohol, use of alcohol despite adverse consequences, and distortions in thinking."[105] MeSH has had an entry for "alcoholism" since 1999, and references the 1992 definition.[106]
When you're putting money into your health, your future and your family's happiness, you need to make sure you're making the right decision for your Cheyenne alcohol and drug abuse rehabilitation clinic. While the best alternative may still be to speak to our hotline advisors so they can discuss your individual requirements, reading how others have reviewed or rated some of the addiction rehab clinics in or around your area is another great way to start.

Narcotics Anonymous (NA). Narcotics Anonymous is an organization that adapted the same principles as Alcoholics Anonymous. Just like AA, NA emphasizes a spiritual connection to a higher power. The program is targeted towards men and women for whom drugs have become a major problem. These people come together regularly in support group meetings and help one another to maintain abstinence as they recover from their addictions.


Alcohol dependence is a legitimate health problem. Health professionals can provide advice, support and in some cases medication to help reduce alcohol dependence. You may feel embarrassed talking to a doctor about drinking too much, but remember that doctors and other health workers are there to help fix health problems, not to judge or berate their patients. A good doctor will encourage their patients to drink in moderation or perhaps abstain for periods of time, not make their patients feel guilty or bad for drinking drink too much alcohol.
Prevention must begin at a young age since the first instance of intoxication usually occurs during the teenage years. It is particularly important that teenagers who are at high risk for alcoholism-those with a family history of alcoholism, early or frequent use of alcohol, a tendency to drink to drunkenness, alcohol use that interferes with school work, a poor family environment, or a history of domestic violence -receive education about alcohol and its long-term effects. How this is best achieved, without alienating these young people and thus losing their attention, is the subject of continuing debate and study.
Alcoholism can also lead to impotence in men, damage to the fetus in pregnant women, and an elevated risk of cancer of the larynx, esophagus, liver, breast, stomach, pancreas, and upper gastrointestinal tract. Because heavy drinkers seldom have adequate diets, they may have nutritional deficiencies. Heavy drinkers typically have impaired liver function, and up to one in five develops cirrhosis.
Though cautious regarding the medical nature of alcoholism, AA has let others voice opinions. The Big Book states that alcoholism "is an illness which only a spiritual experience will conquer." Ernest Kurtz says this is "The closest the book Alcoholics Anonymous comes to a definition of alcoholism."[60] In his introduction to The Big Book, non-member William Silkworth said those unable to moderate their drinking have an allergy. Addressing the allergy concept, AA said "The doctor’s theory that we have an allergy to alcohol interests us. As laymen, our opinion as to its soundness may, of course, mean little. But as ex-problem drinkers, we can say that his explanation makes good sense. It explains many things for which we cannot otherwise account."[61] AA later acknowledged that "alcoholism is not a true allergy, the experts now inform us."[62] Wilson explained in 1960 why AA had refrained from using the term "disease":
Benzodiazepines, while useful in the management of acute alcohol withdrawal, if used long-term can cause a worse outcome in alcoholism. Alcoholics on chronic benzodiazepines have a lower rate of achieving abstinence from alcohol than those not taking benzodiazepines. This class of drugs is commonly prescribed to alcoholics for insomnia or anxiety management.[139] Initiating prescriptions of benzodiazepines or sedative-hypnotics in individuals in recovery has a high rate of relapse with one author reporting more than a quarter of people relapsed after being prescribed sedative-hypnotics. Those who are long-term users of benzodiazepines should not be withdrawn rapidly, as severe anxiety and panic may develop, which are known risk factors for relapse into alcohol abuse. Taper regimes of 6–12 months have been found to be the most successful, with reduced intensity of withdrawal.[140][141]

Caucasians have a much lower abstinence rate (11.8%) and much higher tolerance to symptoms (3.4±2.45 drinks) of alcohol than Chinese (33.4% and 2.2±1.78 drinks respectively). Also, the more acculturation there is between cultures, the more influenced the culture is to adopt Caucasians drinking practices.[175] Peyote, a psychoactive agent, has even shown promise in treating alcoholism. Alcohol had actually replaced peyote as Native Americans’ psychoactive agent of choice in rituals when peyote was outlawed.[176]
A. At age 17, it may seem like fun to go out and party and get drunk every night, but its symptomatic that you have let your self cross over the line that leads to self destruction. You have already admitted that you are worried about becoming an alcoholic and being referred to as a "drunk". If that bothers you, you had better get help or stop. If it doesn't bother you that people see you as "a drunk", then there's no point in anyone making any further replies to your post. Sooner or later, something bad will surely happen, that may make you wise up. But for many alcoholics which includes me, they have to hit absolute "rock bottom". Your life will surely go "south" if you keep it up, until you either wise up because of the hangovers, or you get to the bitter end of your rope. The end of the rope could be any of the following: jail, death, car wreck, lose job, lose spouse through divorce, get thrown out of the house, get sick from heart disease, beco

Steps one through three deal with the individual’s acceptance of their inability to control their addiction alone and the need of support to remain abstinent. Steps four through nine teach the individual to take responsibility for their own actions and characteristics in order to create change in their life. Steps four, six and eight require self-reflection while steps five, seven and nine are the application of those reflections. The focus in steps 10 through 12 is on maintaining recovery. Each step builds upon the previous step in a progressive course of action.
Alcoholism is common, serious, and expensive. Physicians encounter alcohol-related cirrhosis, cardiomyopathy, pancreatitis, and gastrointestinal bleeding, as well as intoxication and alcohol addiction, on a daily basis. Alcoholism is also associated with many cancers. Wernicke encephalopathy and Korsakoff psychosis are also important causes of chronic disability as well as dementia. Fetal alcohol syndrome is a leading cause of mental retardation. In addition, accidents (especially automobile), depression, dementia, suicide, and homicide are important consequences of alcoholism.
Based on this study, those who abstain altogether from substances – as advised in the 12-Step model – have better mental health outcomes than those who don’t abstain. The 12-Step model gives people a framework from which to surrender their addiction, process their experience, and move forward into new patterns. As described in an article on Psych Central called Recovery Using the 12 Steps, following the model assists an individual by helping build the following mental and emotional transformative practices and tools:

Stereotypes of alcoholics are often found in fiction and popular culture. The "town drunk" is a stock character in Western popular culture. Stereotypes of drunkenness may be based on racism or xenophobia, as in the fictional depiction of the Irish as heavy drinkers.[171] Studies by social psychologists Stivers and Greeley attempt to document the perceived prevalence of high alcohol consumption amongst the Irish in America.[172] Alcohol consumption is relatively similar between many European cultures, the United States, and Australia. In Asian countries that have a high gross domestic product, there is heightened drinking compared to other Asian countries, but it is nowhere near as high as it is in other countries like the United States. It is also inversely seen, with countries that have very low gross domestic product showing high alcohol consumption.[173] In a study done on Korean immigrants in Canada, they reported alcohol was even an integral part of their meal, and is the only time solo drinking should occur. They also believe alcohol is necessary at any social event as it helps conversations start.[174]
The risk of developing alcoholism has a definite genetic component. Studies have demonstrated that close relatives of people with alcoholism are more likely to become alcoholics themselves. This risk exists even for children adopted away from their biological families at birth and raised in a non-alcoholic adoptive family with no knowledge of their biological family's alcohol use. However, no specific gene for alcoholism has been found, and environmental factors (e.g., stress) and social factors (e.g., peer behavior) are thought to play a role in whether a person becomes alcohol dependent.
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Alcoholism is a term used to describe someone with an alcohol use disorder. Someone with alcoholism has both a physical and psychological dependence on alcohol. They may have problems controlling their drinking habits or choose to keep drinking even though it causes problems. These problems may interfere with their professional and social relationships or even their own health.


Fact: Alcohol is a drug, and alcoholism is every bit as damaging as drug addiction. Alcohol addiction causes changes in the body and brain, and long-term alcohol abuse can have devastating effects on your health, your career, and your relationships. Alcoholics go through physical withdrawal when they stop drinking, just like drug users do when they quit.
But not everyone in the treatment community is as skeptical toward Alcoholics Anonymous. Scientific American grants that it’s not a perfect solution, but claims that criticisms of the group are often unfair or based on false assumptions. For many alcoholics, AA’s wide availability of meetings and lack of expense make it a worthy consideration. The Recent Developments in Alcoholism journal said 12-Step programs are “an ideal recovery recourse,” and the Alcoholic Research & Health journal notes that the rise of other treatment methods have not displaced the model of mutual health groups, which are still the most widely sought-after source of help for alcoholism and other substance abuse problems.
Q. Alcoholism Steve 26 yr old suffered with bi-polar and the related drugs that eventually lead to his over dose. He died in where he felt a connection to the intellectual environment. After suffering with Steve for so many years, I am convinced that this disease is genetic; his grandmother also suffered with drug addiction and a mental disorder, but had that gene that must have been inherited by Steve. Any one in the area of mental health and genetic engineering Research? We want to set up or get involved with public awareness on the devastation of this disease which kills 100+ thousands in this country each year; yet society treats it as a social problem -- The advancement of mental research has been slow almost medieval -- Please help. No one, no family should have to suffer the way my beautiful son suffered and who had so much to give to humanity.
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NOTE: This article is based on research that utilizes the sources cited here as well as the collective experience of the Lab Tests Online Editorial Review Board. This article is periodically reviewed by the Editorial Board and may be updated as a result of the review. Any new sources cited will be added to the list and distinguished from the original sources used. To access online sources, copy and paste the URL into your browser.
n the continued extreme dependence on excessive amounts of alcohol, accompanied by a cumulative pattern of deviant behaviors. The most frequent consequences are chronic gastritis, central nervous system depression, and cirrhosis of the liver, each of which can compromise the delivery of dental care. Oral cancer and increased levels of periodontal disease are also risks.
The only requirement for membership is a desire to stop drinking. There are no dues or fees for A.A. membership; we are self-supporting through our own contributions. A.A. is not allied with any sect, denomination, politics, organization or institution; does not wish to engage in any controversy; neither endorses nor opposes any causes. Our primary purpose is to stay sober and help other alcoholics to achieve sobriety.
Depending on the addiction type and intensity, you or someone you care about may require anything from a thirty day in-patient drug or alcohol treatment program all the way up to a 4-month or longer one. Certain drugs may allow for outpatient services while severe cases may need longer-term treatment services. However, you can find a Cheyenne treatment facility to fit just about any personal need.
The Hazelden Betty Ford Foundation is a force of healing and hope for individuals, families and communities affected by addiction to alcohol and other drugs. It is the nation's largest nonprofit treatment provider, with a legacy that began in 1949 and includes the 1982 founding of the Betty Ford Center. With 17 sites in California, Minnesota, Oregon, Illinois, New York, Florida, Massachusetts, Colorado and Texas, the Foundation offers prevention and recovery solutions nationwide and across the entire continuum of care for youth and adults.

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...more and more, Bill discovered that new adherents could get sober by believing in each other and in the strength of this group. Men [no women were members yet] who had proven over and over again, by extremely painful experience, that they could not get sober on their own had somehow become more powerful when two or three of them worked on their common problem. This, then—whatever it was that occurred among them—was what they could accept as a power greater than themselves. They did not need the Oxford Group.
Women tend to be more sensitive to the effects of alcohol and may develop alcohol-related health problems sooner and after consuming less alcohol than men do. Alcohol use in pregnant women can lead to miscarriage, stillbirth, premature birth, low birth weight, and other problems in the baby, such as abnormal facial features, malformation of organs (such as the brain and heart), growth deficits, and hearing and vision problems. Brain damage due to a mother's alcohol use may result in behavioral problems, speech and language delays, and learning disabilities, according to the March of Dimes.

Diabetes: There is a high risk of developing diabetes type 2, and people with diabetes have a high chance of complications if they regularly consume more alcohol than is recommended. Alcohol prevents the release of glucose from the liver, resulting in hypoglycemia. If a person with diabetes is already using insulin to lower their blood sugar levels, hypoglycemia could have serious consequences.
Environmental factors and genetics are two components associated with alcoholism, with about half the risk attributed to each.[3] Someone with a parent or sibling with alcoholism is three to four times more likely to become an alcoholic themselves.[3] Environmental factors include social, cultural and behavioral influences.[14] High stress levels and anxiety, as well as alcohol's inexpensive cost and easy accessibility, increase the risk.[3][5] People may continue to drink partly to prevent or improve symptoms of withdrawal.[3] After a person stops drinking alcohol, they may experience a low level of withdrawal lasting for months.[3] Medically, alcoholism is considered both a physical and mental illness.[15][16] Questionnaires and certain blood tests may both detect people with possible alcoholism.[3] Further information is then collected to confirm the diagnosis.[3]
The twelve steps of alcoholics anonymous do not come from the Oxford Groups because there were twelve apostles the  Oxford Groups practised six steps all of which AA adopted but also added six which had to do specifically with a non denominational or religious numinous power and the specific effects of alcohol addiction on the character on the afflicted.  As many addicts -- probably many more -- have been harmed by the ignorant prescription or pharmaceuticals to people in recovery for AA as have been harmed by a lay AA sponsor telling a member that all prescriptions are bad. .   
But Twelve-Step Facilitation therapy is still a tried-and-true proven approach. It is far more than advising a patient to “go to AA” and providing them a list of meeting locations and times. In Twelve-Step Faciliation, the therapist actively probes and nudges, encouraging not only attendance, but participation, in meetings; it explains the potential benefits of working with a sponsor and promotes the individual developing a relationship with a sponsor; it explores problems or psychological resistances to attendance, participation, actual “working the steps,” and the development of a sponsor-sponsee relationship; and it opens the door to “AA-related activities” such as volunteer service to one’s AA “home group” or AA “clubhouse” and involvement with AA-related social events, retreats, and local and state conventions.
Short-term effects of alcohol abuse can be just as dangerous as long-term effects. For instance, drinking can impact your reaction time, causing you to have slow reflexes and coordination. That’s why drinking and driving is extremely dangerous. Getting behind the wheel of a car can alter your perception of speed and distance, putting yourself and others at risk.
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 In addition, every federal court in the land that has examined the issue has held that 12-Step programs -- despite their claims to the contrary -- are sufficiently religious that coerced attendance (for example, when a court or probation officer orders mandatory attendance at AA meetings) violates the Establishment Clause of the First Amendment of the U.S. Constitution.  This is explicitly the law in the 2nd, 7th, and 9th federal circuits, as well as the states of New York and Tennessee.
Prioritizing coping over healing. While AA obviously wants its members to avoid relapse and maintain sobriety, the means of doing so is heavily focused on using skills to cope with addictive behaviors rather than addressing the underlying issues that are causing them. Because of this, many people find the 12-Step program might help them stay sober, but leave them still struggling with the problems that led to becoming alcoholics in the first place.
Heart. Small amounts of alcohol cause a drop in blood pressure, but with increased consumption, alcohol raises blood pressure into a dangerous range (hypertension). High levels of fats circulating in the bloodstream increase the risk of heart disease. Heavy drinking results in an increase in heart size, weakening of the heart muscle, abnormal heart rhythms, a risk of blood clots forming within the chambers of the heart, and a greatly increased risk of stroke due to a blood clot entering the circulatory system and blocking a brain blood vessel.
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Using “I” statements reduces accusation and lets you be an active participant in the discussion. It may be helpful to bring up a specific concern. You may mention when alcohol caused an unwanted effect, such as violent behavior or economic problems. Rather than saying, “You’re an alcoholic — you need to get help now,” you can say, “I love you and you’re very important to me. I’m concerned about how much you’re drinking, and it may be harming your health.”
Self Management and Recovery Training (SMART Recovery). SMART Recovery is a network of support groups that advocate the use of scientific research in addiction recovery. SMART Recovery supports the use of prescription medications and behavioral therapies in the treatment of substance abuse. Since scientific knowledge is constantly evolving, the SMART Recovery program is also constantly evolving. The organization has face-to-face meetings across the United States and daily online meetings.
Alcohol use disorder is a potentially fatal disease, characterized by cravings, tolerance (needing more), physical dependence, and loss of control over consuming alcohol.  Alcohol intoxication may or may not be obvious to observers. Even in highly functional alcoholics, chronic alcoholism can lead to physical problems. Most common is damage to your liver, which over time can lead to cirrhosis (scarred liver). Other risks include depression, stomach bleeds, pancreatitis, high blood pressure, heart failure, numbness and tingling in your feet and changes in your brain. Alcoholism can also increase your risk for infections including pneumonia, tuberculosis, and chronic gastritis.
This is the big one. Many scientific arguments for hereditary alcoholism have been made. In fact, we have an extensive article on the topic, worth the read. While less than 20% of alcohol users actually become alcoholics, there are over 930 genes associated with alcohol use, and there is absolutely a genetic factor in risk for alcoholism. Perhaps the one-fifth of drinkers that do develop a disorder is genetically predisposed somehow. More research must be done to say for sure.
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A. I,m going to tell you a story: I was born in Newark,New Jersey in 1956,my sister was born 1953.Me an my sister were both born with asthma.my mother liked to party alot with her friends,an my father drank at work sometimes an when he got home,every day at 5pm.One day when i was 6yrs old,my sister got sick(asthma attack). I remember my grand mother trying to get my mother to take my sister to the hospital,to call my father,finally when my sister almost stopped breath she was taken to the hospital-it was to late.If my parents had of been sober my sister would be here to day,This was my first exsperiance with ALCOHOL---growing up was not easy when i was young i used to go hide when my father came home(IT WAS VERY BAD) my father used to come home from work,get drunk an start to holla at my mother if denner was not the way he liked--he would holla,yell for no reason most of the time(THIS MAN WAS EVIL)--in those days people did not care about addiction like now-he is dead thank god?
Luckily, if the 12-Step program has proven itself ineffective for you and your recovery needs, there are many alternatives to choose from. Even if they are not physically available to you, the majority of them have a strong Internet presence and can provide support with online forums for members to share their experiences in, which for some who are uncomfortable sharing in person may even find to be a preferable option.
I am appalled that a book written by two extremely disturbed privileged white males who lived in 1930s Jim Crow era America is still the "treatment " standard for addiction. AA has been ruled a religious organization by several federal circuit courts, and it is impossible to work the program without a belief in a God who magically answers prayers for the addict who prays hard enough. It is not possible to turn one's will and life over to the care of Nature, or a Doorknob, or the Group of Drunks. One is guided through the steps by someone who is only qualified by the amount of sober time they claim to have. 12 step groups are especially dangerous for survivors of rape, abuse, and other trauma when they are tasked to examine "their part" in the crimes committed against them, not to mention having to defend themselves against the unethical yet joked about 13th Step.
Elderly people who drink excessively are at risk for having more serious illnesses, doctor visits, and symptoms of depression, with less life satisfaction and smaller social support networks compared to senior citizens who have never consumed alcohol. While binge drinking is often thought to be a symptom of young people, an often unknown fact is that a significant percentage of middle-aged and elderly individuals also engage in binge drinking. This behavior increases the risk for driving drunk, no matter what the age. That, in turn, puts the individual at risk for being arrested for driving under the influence (DUI) of alcohol.

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My Treatment Lender is the only recovery-based lending company in the country. We provide loans to people who are in need of behavioral health, substance abuse and/or eating disorder treatment. We can help clients cover the cost of co-pays, high deductibles, or their entire stay. We believe that people don't have to suffer from mental health issues, alcoholism, drug addiction or eating disorders. There is a solution. By providing loans for treatment, we hope to be able to give people who want to recover the best chance possible.
Most Twelve Step participants view addiction as a lifelong disease and see the Twelve Steps as their new design for living. When people whose lives have been affected by addiction work the Twelve Steps, they can better sort out the things which they have no control over, and the things for which they are responsible. Group meetings offer a safe place to share one's experience, strength and hope, and to receive support and fellowship.
While some people with alcohol use disorder can cut back or stop drinking without help, most are only able to do so temporarily unless they get treatment. Individuals who consume alcohol in lower amounts and tend to cope with problems more directly are more likely to be successful in their efforts to cut back or stop drinking without the benefit of treatment.
Misuse, problem use, abuse, and heavy use of alcohol refer to improper use of alcohol, which may cause physical, social, or moral harm to the drinker.[91] The Dietary Guidelines for Americans defines "moderate use" as no more than two alcoholic beverages a day for men and no more than one alcoholic beverage a day for women.[92] Some drinkers may drink more than 600 ml of alcohol per day during a heavy drinking period.[93] The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) defines binge drinking as the amount of alcohol leading to a blood alcohol content (BAC) of 0.08, which, for most adults, would be reached by consuming five drinks for men or four for women over a two-hour period. According to the NIAAA, men may be at risk for alcohol-related problems if their alcohol consumption exceeds 14 standard drinks per week or 4 drinks per day, and women may be at risk if they have more than 7 standard drinks per week or 3 drinks per day. It defines a standard drink as one 12-ounce bottle of beer, one 5-ounce glass of wine, or 1.5 ounces of distilled spirits.[94] Despite this risk, a 2014 report in the National Survey on Drug Use and Health found that only 10% of either "heavy drinkers" or "binge drinkers" defined according to the above criteria also met the criteria for alcohol dependence, while only 1.3% of non-binge drinkers met the criteria. An inference drawn from this study is that evidence-based policy strategies and clinical preventive services may effectively reduce binge drinking without requiring addiction treatment in most cases.[95]

Applicants must certify that they have "buy recycled" by-laws, ordinances or policies in place; indicate whether their purchasing function is centralized or decentralized; certify that everyone with purchasing authority is aware of the "buy recycled" requirement and reminded of it annually; and attach a copy of this communication. See below for examples of qualifying "buy recycled" policy notifications.


During Step 9, individuals will attempt to make amends for wrongdoings done to specific individuals. People are encouraged to reach out to these individuals and let them know that they would like to approach them to make amends. It can be very humbling to do so. In some cases, it is not possible to have these conversations directly, or doing so would be more harmful, so indirect methods may be ideal. Individuals can write a letter to the person (even if it will never actually be delivered), or they may choose to donate to a charity in their honor or help someone else in need.
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