The reason that data recovery software can't recover data from SSDs is simple. Virtually all current SSDs use so-called TRIM technology that increases efficiency and disk life by clearing disk sectors that are not being used. One result of this is that the data can't be recovered by software, even if the file system retains its record of the sectors where the data used to be. With traditional spinning hard drives and USB flash drives, file recovery is relatively simple. Recovery software can find the location of a file's data even if you've emptied the Recycle Bin, often even if you've reformatted the disk. But once a file is deleted from an SSD, and the Recycle Bin has been emptied, there's no hope of ever getting that file back again, unless you have a backup somewhere.
Alcoholism is a chronic, progressive behavioral disorder characterized by a strong urge to consume ethanol and an inability to limit the amount of drinking despite adverse consequences, including social or occupational impairment and deterioration of physical health. The disorder includes both physical dependence (withdrawal symptoms such as nausea, sweating, tremors, and delirium resulting from abstinence) and tolerance (the need to increase alcohol intake to achieve the desired effect). Excessive drinking may occur daily or during binges separated by intervals of sobriety lasting from days to months. About 30% of U.S. adults drink to excess at least occasionally, and 3-5% of women and 10% of men have chronic problems of excessive drinking. In approximately 40% of those who habitually abuse alcohol, a pattern of inappropriate drinking is evident before age 20. Alcoholism is frequently accompanied by addiction to nicotine and other drugs, anxiety, depression, and antisocial personality. It tends to run in families, but personal history and environmental factors are apparently at least as important as genetic predisposition. Behavioral traits that are typical of alcoholism include solitary drinking, morning drinking, lying about the extent of one's drinking, and maintenance of a secret supply of liquor. Alcoholism costs the U.S. approximately $200 billion yearly. Chronic alcoholism decreases life expectancy by about 15 years. It is associated with an increased incidence of cardiac arrhythmia, hypertension, stroke, acute hepatitis, cirrhosis, gastritis, pancreatitis, syncope, amnesia and personality change. Because ethanol is a rich source of nonnutritive calories, heavy drinking often leads to malnutrition and vitamin deficiency. Degenerative central nervous system disorders associated with alcoholism include Wernicke encephalopathy (due to thiamine deficiency) and Korsakoff psychosis. Alcoholics are more likely than nonalcoholics to be involved in automobile accidents (more than 25% of all traffic deaths involve alcohol) and to commit violent crimes, including spousal and child abuse and homicide. A child born to an alcoholic mother may suffer the stigmata of fetal alcohol syndrome, characterized by low birth weight, facial dysmorphism, cardiac anomalies, and mental retardation. The treatment of alcoholism requires intensive counseling of patient and family. Cognitive-behavioral therapy, motivational enhancement therapy, group therapy, and support groups are all of proven value. Administration of benzodiazepines during withdrawal and use of topiramate or naltrexone to maintain abstinence are often effective. Disulfiram taken regularly can lower the risk of relapse by inducing severe malaise and nausea if alcohol is consumed. Detoxification programs for the management of acute alcoholic intoxication include withdrawal of all alcohol consumption and provision of nutritional, pharmacologic, and psychological support.
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Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) was the first 12-step program established and many other support groups have branched off from AA using this model. AA is an organization that unites people who have struggled with alcohol dependency, providing strength and faith in one another to overcome addiction. Its mission is to “stay sober and help other alcoholics to achieve sobriety” without judgment or segregation. AA founders Bill Wilson and Dr. Bob Smith developed the 12 steps based on concepts from Carl Jung’s theories as influenced by Eastern philosophy, and from spiritual values such as those rooted in the principles of the Oxford Group.
The first few sips of an alcoholic beverage can lead to pleasant feelings. When alcohol is metabolized into the bloodstream and enters the brain, it binds to the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors, which are involved in the stress response. If a person has active production of GABA, which is absorbed by receptors rapidly, they may experience several conditions, from anxiety to seizure disorders. Alcohol slows this neuron firing down, so even people without anxiety or stress feel relaxed. The substance also inhibits glutamate absorption, which further reduces stress or anxiety.
At least two thirds of all alcohol consumed by Australians is consumed at levels which present either long or short term health risks. Some 10% of Australian men and women consume more than the average number of drinks recommended in the Australian guidelines. While a smaller proportion of Indigenous Australians drink than non-Indigenous Australians, a higher proportion of Indigenous Australians (20%) exceed the recommended average daily drinking limits than non-Indigenous Australians.
Recovery from alcoholism is a life-long process. The potential for relapse remains present and must be acknowledged and respected. Many individuals stop drinking and then relapse multiple times before attaining extended periods of sobriety. Statistics suggest that, among middle-class alcohol-dependent individuals in stable financial and family situations who have undergone treatment, 60% or more successfully stop drinking for at least one year.
Severe acute withdrawal symptoms such as delirium tremens and seizures rarely occur after 1-week post cessation of alcohol. The acute withdrawal phase can be defined as lasting between one and three weeks. In the period of 3–6 weeks following cessation increased anxiety, depression, as well as sleep disturbance, is common; fatigue and tension can persist for up to 5 weeks as part of the post-acute withdrawal syndrome; about a quarter of alcoholics experience anxiety and depression for up to 2 years. These post-acute withdrawal symptoms have also been demonstrated in animal models of alcohol dependence and withdrawal. A kindling effect also occurs in alcoholics whereby each subsequent withdrawal syndrome is more severe than the previous withdrawal episode; this is due to neuroadaptations which occur as a result of periods of abstinence followed by re-exposure to alcohol. Individuals who have had multiple withdrawal episodes are more likely to develop seizures and experience more severe anxiety during withdrawal from alcohol than alcohol-dependent individuals without a history of past alcohol withdrawal episodes. The kindling effect leads to persistent functional changes in brain neural circuits as well as to gene expression. Kindling also results in the intensification of psychological symptoms of alcohol withdrawal. There are decision tools and questionnaires which help guide physicians in evaluating alcohol withdrawal. For example, the CIWA-Ar objectifies alcohol withdrawal symptoms in order to guide therapy decisions which allows for an efficient interview while at the same time retaining clinical usefulness, validity, and reliability, ensuring proper care for withdrawal patients, who can be in danger of death.
There are numerous individual psychotherapeutic treatments for alcohol addiction. Relapse prevention uses methods for recognizing and amending problem behaviors. Individualized drug counseling specifically emphasizes short-term behavioral goals in an attempt to help the individual reduce or stop the use of alcohol altogether. Cognitive-behavioral therapy techniques, like helping the individual with alcohol use disorder recognize what tends to precede and follow their episodes of alcohol use, are often used to address alcohol abuse. Some treatment programs include drug testing. Twelve-step recovery programs like Alcoholics Anonymous are individualized drug-counseling methods. Motivational enhancement therapy encourages the person suffering from alcohol use disorder to increase their desire to participate in therapy. Stimulus control refers to an intervention that teaches the alcohol-use disordered person to stay away from situations that are associated with alcohol use and to replace those situations with activities that are alcohol-free and otherwise contrary to using alcohol. Urge control is an approach to changing patterns that lead to drug or alcohol use.
Mental health is as important as physical health. It includes your emotional, psychological, and social well being. Mental illnesses are serious disorders that can affect your thinking, mood, and behavior. There are many factors in these disorders, such as genes, family history, and life experiences. These government services can help you find someone to talk to, treatment options, and information on a wide range of mental health issues.