Attitudes and social stereotypes can create barriers to the detection and treatment of alcohol abuse. This is more of a barrier for women than men. Fear of stigmatization may lead women to deny that they are suffering from a medical condition, to hide their drinking, and to drink alone. This pattern, in turn, leads family, physicians, and others to be less likely to suspect that a woman they know is an alcoholic. In contrast, reduced fear of stigma may lead men to admit that they are suffering from a medical condition, to display their drinking publicly, and to drink in groups. This pattern, in turn, leads family, physicians, and others to be more likely to suspect that a man they know is an alcoholic.
Added fat and scar tissue on the liver due to excessive alcohol consumption can lead to all sorts of problems, but most often either cirrhosis or alcohol-induced hepatitis. Liver failure among those who drink heavily for many years is likely. Pancreatitis, or the consistent inflammation of the pancreas, can also cause damage to the body, including high blood sugar leading to diabetes.
There are many clues which can lead a doctor to suspect a patient is alcohol dependent, and will not usually require a physical examination. For example, a doctor may suspect alcohol dependence if a patient often asks for a medical certificate for time off work, has a mental health problem (e.g. depression) or physical conditions associated with alcohol consumption (especially liver cirrhosis). In such cases, a good doctor will ask the patient questions about their alcohol consumption patterns, or ask them to complete a questionnaire about alcohol, to assess whether or not their alcohol consumption is presenting a health risk.
Gastrointestinal system. Alcohol causes loosening of the muscular ring that prevents the stomach's contents from re-entering the esophagus. Acid from the stomach flows backward into the esophagus(acid reflux), burning those tissues, and causing pain and bleeding. Inflammation of the stomach also can result in ulcers, bleeding, pain, and a decreased desire to eat. A major cause of severe, uncontrollable bleeding (hemorrhage) in an people with alcoholism is the development of enlarged (dilated) blood vessels within the esophagus, which are called esophageal varices. These varices develop in response to liver disease, and are extremely prone to bursting and hemorrhaging. Hemorrhaging varices are often fatal. Diarrhea is a common symptom, due to alcohol's effect on the pancreas. In addition, inflammation of the pancreas (pancreatitis) is a serious and painful problem in many people who abuse alcohol. Throughout the intestinal tract, alcohol interferes with the absorption of nutrients, which can result in a malnourished state. Alcohol is broken down (metabolized) in the liver and interferes with a number of important chemical reactions that occur in that organ. The liver begins to enlarge and fill with fat (fatty liver). Fibrous scar tissue interferes with the liver's normal structure and function (cirrhosis), and the liver may become inflamed (hepatitis).
Alcoholics Anonymous became so well-known that Wilson and other early members of the group were invited to a dinner hosted by John D. Rockefeller, Jr., the patriarch of one of the most powerful families in American history. Despite Wilson’s requests, Rockefeller refused to finance AA, believing that the money would only corrupt the noble ambitions of the group. Instead, Rockefeller felt that the organization’s own characteristics – the personal testimonies, the word-of-mouth, and the anonymity – were key to its success and longevity.