Babies who are born to mothers who are heavy drinkers are more at risk for being born with significant medical, developmental, behavioral, and emotional problems, including fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). However, many babies whose mothers consumed even minimal amounts of alcohol during pregnancy have been born with such problems. Therefore, there is no amount of alcohol intake that has been proven to be safe during pregnancy.
PaRC's team of physicians and specialists evaluate, treat, educate and guide the chronic pain sufferer through the process of pain and addiction recovery. Two primary goals of PaRC's Pain Recovery Program are pain relief to the highest degree possible and stopping or reversing the negative impact and downward course of a patient's pain condition, lifestyle, work, interpersonal relationships and overall wellbeing. 
Chronic pain conditions require a multifaceted approach to treatment. PaRC's Pain Recovery  Program addresses the bio-psycho-social factors that contribute to chronic pain. We teach patients physical, mental and behavioral techniques that assist them in living life fully and achieving pain relief and management without reliance on addictive medications.
A complex mixture of genetic and environmental factors influences the risk of the development of alcoholism.[69] Genes that influence the metabolism of alcohol also influence the risk of alcoholism, and may be indicated by a family history of alcoholism.[70] One paper has found that alcohol use at an early age may influence the expression of genes which increase the risk of alcohol dependence.[71] Individuals who have a genetic disposition to alcoholism are also more likely to begin drinking at an earlier age than average.[72] Also, a younger age of onset of drinking is associated with an increased risk of the development of alcoholism,[72] and about 40 percent of alcoholics will drink excessively by their late adolescence. It is not entirely clear whether this association is causal, and some researchers have been known to disagree with this view.[73]

Unhealthy alcohol use includes any alcohol use that puts your health or safety at risk or causes other alcohol-related problems. It also includes binge drinking — a pattern of drinking where a male consumes five or more drinks within two hours or a female downs at least four drinks within two hours. Binge drinking causes significant health and safety risks.
Hazard duly joined a Christian evangelical movement, known as the Oxford Group. In addition to the basic tenets of the Christian faith (such as honesty and personal change), “personal evangelism” was stressed, or one member of the group sharing his story with someone outside of the group, especially if the other person was undergoing a personal crisis.
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Having more than one drink a day for women or two drinks for men increases the risk of heart disease, high blood pressure, atrial fibrillation, and stroke.[29] Risk is greater in younger people due to binge drinking, which may result in violence or accidents.[29] About 3.3 million deaths (5.9% of all deaths) are believed to be due to alcohol each year.[11] Alcoholism reduces a person's life expectancy by around ten years[22] and alcohol use is the third leading cause of early death in the United States.[29] No professional medical association recommends that people who are nondrinkers should start drinking wine.[29][30] Long-term alcohol abuse can cause a number of physical symptoms, including cirrhosis of the liver, pancreatitis, epilepsy, polyneuropathy, alcoholic dementia, heart disease, nutritional deficiencies, peptic ulcers[31] and sexual dysfunction, and can eventually be fatal. Other physical effects include an increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease, malabsorption, alcoholic liver disease, and several cancers. Damage to the central nervous system and peripheral nervous system can occur from sustained alcohol consumption.[32][33] A wide range of immunologic defects can result and there may be a generalized skeletal fragility, in addition to a recognized tendency to accidental injury, resulting a propensity to bone fractures.[34]

Hazard duly joined a Christian evangelical movement, known as the Oxford Group. In addition to the basic tenets of the Christian faith (such as honesty and personal change), “personal evangelism” was stressed, or one member of the group sharing his story with someone outside of the group, especially if the other person was undergoing a personal crisis.
Many people use alcohol as a de-stressor. While some beer may be a temporarily relief from the stress of the day, ultimately alcohol is stressing you out even more. Research shows that long-term drinking can increase perceived stress in the brain. For example, a stressful situation would be handled worse by an alcoholic than by a non-alcoholic. Many other factors play into how we handle such situations, but without a doubt drinking alcohol will not help.
For every addiction, there are recovery programs and support groups to help those looking to kick their habits. Generally speaking, these programs can be grouped into one of two big buckets: those following a 12-step approach, and those that do not. Which you choose will be a matter of personal preference and – to some – whether you believe in a higher power, which 12-step programs typically promote. Either way, these resources can help you stay happy, healthy and social after your course of recovery from drug addiction or alcoholism treatment.
Substance abuse A condition characterized by a pathologic pattern of alcohol use causing a serious impairment in social or occupational functioning; also defined as a '…primary, chronic, disease with genetic, psychosocial, and environmental factors influencing its development and manifestations. The disease is often progressive and fatal. It is characterized by … distortions in thinking, most notably denial'; alcoholism is characterized by the regular intake of ≥ 75 g/day of alcohol Chronic effects Co-morbidity due to portal HTN, hepatic failure, hyperestrogenemia, infections–especially pneumonia, which may be due to alcohol-induced suppression of various immune defenses, psychosocial disruption, transient hyperparathyroidism with ↓ Ca2+, ↓ Mg2+, osteoporosis. See Blood alcohol levels, Standard drink.
My Treatment Lender is the only recovery-based lending company in the country. We provide loans to people who are in need of behavioral health, substance abuse and/or eating disorder treatment. We can help clients cover the cost of co-pays, high deductibles, or their entire stay. We believe that people don't have to suffer from mental health issues, alcoholism, drug addiction or eating disorders. There is a solution. By providing loans for treatment, we hope to be able to give people who want to recover the best chance possible.
FAS is the leading cause of mental retardation in the United States. One to two of every 1,000 infants born in the United States are afflicted with FAS. The incidence of FAS in children whose mothers drink heavily is 4% much higher than the rate in the general population. Research studies that have followed infants with FAS and FAEs across time have found that many of these children continue to have cognitive difficulties (e.g., lower IQ scores, more learning problems, poorer short-term memory functioning) and behavioral problems (e.g., high impulsivity, high activity level) into childhood and adolescence.
Alcohol detoxification or 'detox' for alcoholics is an abrupt stop of alcohol drinking coupled with the substitution of drugs, such as benzodiazepines, that have similar effects to prevent alcohol withdrawal. Individuals who are only at risk of mild to moderate withdrawal symptoms can be detoxified as outpatients. Individuals at risk of a severe withdrawal syndrome as well as those who have significant or acute comorbid conditions are generally treated as inpatients. Detoxification does not actually treat alcoholism, and it is necessary to follow up detoxification with an appropriate treatment program for alcohol dependence or abuse to reduce the risk of relapse.[7] Some symptoms of alcohol withdrawal such as depressed mood and anxiety typically take weeks or months to abate while other symptoms persist longer due to persisting neuroadaptations.[65] Alcoholism has serious adverse effects on brain function; on average it takes one year of abstinence to recover from the cognitive deficits incurred by chronic alcohol abuse.[126]
In some ways, the championing of anonymity has been AA’s blessing and curse. It not only protects the privacy of the people it seeks to help (and those who seek it for help), it also protects the organization at large from public relations and morale damage if a high-profile member were to relapse. In the more than 75 years since Alcoholics Anonymous formed, NPR notes that “no one knows how exactly it works.”
Because the 12-step philosophy is proven to be one of the most successful approaches to managing the disease of addiction, many drug and alcohol rehab programs have integrated these steps into their treatment models. If you enter an inpatient or outpatient rehab program these days, you’re likely to have the opportunity to learn about 12-step recovery strategies or to participate in 12-step meetings.
Jump up ^ Littrell, Jill (2014). Understanding and Treating Alcoholism Volume I: An Empirically Based Clinician's Handbook for the Treatment of Alcoholism: Volume Ii: Biological, Psychological, and Social Aspects of Alcohol Consumption and Abuse. Hoboken: Taylor and Francis. p. 55. ISBN 9781317783145. Archived from the original on 20 July 2017. The World Health Organization defines alcoholism as any drinking which results in problems
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Based on this study, those who abstain altogether from substances – as advised in the 12-Step model – have better mental health outcomes than those who don’t abstain. The 12-Step model gives people a framework from which to surrender their addiction, process their experience, and move forward into new patterns. As described in an article on Psych Central called Recovery Using the 12 Steps, following the model assists an individual by helping build the following mental and emotional transformative practices and tools:

People who abuse alcohol may experience acute problems associated with problem drinking, but continuing to drink in spite of the negative effects puts them at risk of developing chronic health problems. Alcohol abuse damages most organs in the body, especially the liver, cardiovascular system, gastrointestinal system, and brain. Chemical changes to the brain that lead to addiction may also cause harm to memory and cognition.
The term “self-help” is often used to describe AA groups, but it is somewhat of a misnomer: it isn’t “professional help,” but it is more about listening and accepting guidance from a peer or mentor than it is about using “self” to move beyond active addiction. And while Twelve-Step approaches accept that addiction is a disease and isn’t simply a sign of “moral weakness,” there is a focus on values and morals in Twelve-Step Recovery, as the individual is encouraged to engage in a process of taking a “moral inventory” of one’s life and past actions in preparation for “making amends” to others, as indicated, possible, and appropriate.
When it comes to maintaining long-term sobriety outside of a rehabilitation treatment program, the oldest and probably most well-known organization is Alcoholics Anonymous (AA). Founded in 1935, AA and its 12-Step Program has been the go-to for treating alcoholism for decades, with many addiction treatment centers incorporating at least some version of the 12 Steps in their own treatment therapies.

The term “self-help” is often used to describe AA groups, but it is somewhat of a misnomer: it isn’t “professional help,” but it is more about listening and accepting guidance from a peer or mentor than it is about using “self” to move beyond active addiction. And while Twelve-Step approaches accept that addiction is a disease and isn’t simply a sign of “moral weakness,” there is a focus on values and morals in Twelve-Step Recovery, as the individual is encouraged to engage in a process of taking a “moral inventory” of one’s life and past actions in preparation for “making amends” to others, as indicated, possible, and appropriate.

Nervous system. An estimated 30-40% of all men in their teens and twenties have experienced alcoholic blackout from drinking a large quantity of alcohol. This results in the loss of memory of the time surrounding the episode of drinking. Alcohol also causes sleep disturbances, so sleep quality is diminished. Numbness and tingling (parethesia) may occur in the arms and legs. Wernicke's syndrome and Korsakoff's syndrome, which can occur together or separately, are due to the low thiamine (a B vitamin) levels found in many alcohol-dependent people. Wernicke's syndrome results in disordered eye movements, very poor balance, and difficulty walking. Korsakoff's syndrome affects memory and prevents new learning from taking place.


Alcoholics Anonymous is free and open to anyone battling alcohol addiction who wishes to remain sober. Meetings take place all over the world in at least 181 countries, and there were more than 2 million members of AA at last count in 2015. Over the years, other organizations have been formed to support recovery for all types of substances, not just alcohol; groups include Cocaine Anonymous (CA), Narcotics Anonymous (NA), Marijuana Anonymous (MA), to name a few. These recovery support groups tend to follow the general 12-Step ideology as outlined by AA, which is highlighted below. Individuals are encouraged to work through the steps one by one, with the end result being to maintain sobriety, achieve a spiritual awakening through these steps, and then carry the message on to others battling addiction.
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Mike Superb per usual Excellent elucidation of Twelve Step Facillitation and the Principles of AA unfortunately prior posters critical of AA don't share my Experience with that Fellowship AA recommends that members seek out Docs with understanding of the Disease of Addiction It cautions about the use of benzos  hypnotics and MJ Maintenance AA does not oppose ANY OF THE MEDICATIONS that you have described  I have encountered some problem in that regard with NA 
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Alcohol, especially when consumed in excess, can affect teens, women, men, and the elderly quite differently. Women and the elderly tend to have higher blood concentrations of alcohol compared to men and younger individuals who drink the same amount. Alcoholic women are more at risk for developing physical health problems like cirrhosis of the liver and heart and nerve damage at a faster rate than alcohol-dependent men. Interestingly, men and women seem to have similar learning and memory problems as the result of excessive alcohol intake, but again, women tend to develop those problems twice as fast as men.
Dr. Roxanne Dryden-Edwards is an adult, child, and adolescent psychiatrist. She is a former Chair of the Committee on Developmental Disabilities for the American Psychiatric Association, Assistant Professor of Psychiatry at Johns Hopkins Hospital in Baltimore, Maryland, and Medical Director of the National Center for Children and Families in Bethesda, Maryland.

Origins’ treatment culture is deeply rooted in the 12-Steps which have consistently been shown to be the effective foundation for permanent sobriety in the lives of millions. A passionate emphasis on the 12-Step experience is one of several key programmatic features that sets Origins apart from the majority of treatment providers. Our patients do more than learn about the 12-Steps; they have an authentic, personal experience with them.

Having more than one drink a day for women or two drinks for men increases the risk of heart disease, high blood pressure, atrial fibrillation, and stroke.[29] Risk is greater in younger people due to binge drinking, which may result in violence or accidents.[29] About 3.3 million deaths (5.9% of all deaths) are believed to be due to alcohol each year.[11] Alcoholism reduces a person's life expectancy by around ten years[22] and alcohol use is the third leading cause of early death in the United States.[29] No professional medical association recommends that people who are nondrinkers should start drinking wine.[29][30] Long-term alcohol abuse can cause a number of physical symptoms, including cirrhosis of the liver, pancreatitis, epilepsy, polyneuropathy, alcoholic dementia, heart disease, nutritional deficiencies, peptic ulcers[31] and sexual dysfunction, and can eventually be fatal. Other physical effects include an increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease, malabsorption, alcoholic liver disease, and several cancers. Damage to the central nervous system and peripheral nervous system can occur from sustained alcohol consumption.[32][33] A wide range of immunologic defects can result and there may be a generalized skeletal fragility, in addition to a recognized tendency to accidental injury, resulting a propensity to bone fractures.[34]
Clear communication by parents about the negative effects of alcohol, as well as about their expectations regarding drug use, has been found to significantly decrease alcohol use in teens. Adequate parental supervision has also been found to be a deterrent to underage alcohol abuse. Alcohol, and other drug use, has been found to occur most often between the hours of 3 p.m. and 6 p.m., immediately after school and prior to parents' arrival at home from work. Teen participation in extracurricular activities has therefore been revealed to be an important prevention measure for the use of alcohol in this age group. Parents can also help educate teens about appropriate coping and stress-management strategies. For example, 15- to 16-year-olds who use religion to cope with stress tend to use drugs significantly less often and have fewer problems as a result of drinking than their peers who do not use religion to cope.
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Friends and family members are interconnected—suspended in delicate balance. When a loved one begins the arduous journey of recovery, the balance shifts. With work and understanding, relationships can be reshaped into something better and a healthier balance can be achieved. Recovery and support for the recovering person are reciprocal gifts that keep on giving.
At Wyoming Recovery, a patient may begin treatment at residential or outpatient levels of care, depending on the assessment of multiple dimensions, such as: need for detoxification, presence of complicating physical or emotional symptoms and level of support in home/work environments. Typically, a patient will transition from one level to another depending on progress, there is not a fixed length of stay. We offer the following levels of care:

Chronic pain conditions require a multifaceted approach to treatment. PaRC's Pain Recovery  Program addresses the bio-psycho-social factors that contribute to chronic pain. We teach patients physical, mental and behavioral techniques that assist them in living life fully and achieving pain relief and management without reliance on addictive medications.
People who drink too much are at an increased risk of ulcers, digestive problems, low hormone levels, and several cancers, including esophageal, stomach, colon, liver, mouth, and breast cancers. People who drink too much may induce a mood disorder, like anxiety or depression, or they may trigger a seizure disorder due to changes to the GABA system in the brain.
People have been brewing and fermenting alcoholic drinks since the dawn of civilization. Consumed in moderate amounts, alcoholic beverages are relaxing and in some cases may even have beneficial effects on heart health. Consumed in excess, alcohol is poisonous and is considered a drug. It is estimated that between 18 million -- or one in 12 adults -- in the U.S. abuse alcohol or are chronic alcoholics. Nearly 100,000 Americans die each year as a result of alcohol abuse, and alcohol is a factor in more than half of the country's homicides, suicides, and traffic accidents. Alcohol abuse also plays a role in many social and domestic problems, from job absenteeism and crimes against property to spousal and child abuse.
The World Health Organization examined mental disorders in primary care offices and found that alcohol dependence or harmful use was present in 6% of patients. In Britain, 1 in 3 patients in community-based primary care practices had at-risk drinking behavior. Alcoholism is more common in France than it is in Italy, despite virtually identical per capita alcohol consumption.
The term alcoholism is commonly used amongst laypeople, but the word is poorly defined. The WHO calls alcoholism "a term of long-standing use and variable meaning", and use of the term was disfavored by a 1979 WHO expert committee. The Big Book (from Alcoholics Anonymous) states that once a person is an alcoholic, they are always an alcoholic, but does not define what is meant by the term alcoholic in this context. In 1960, Bill W., co-founder of Alcoholics Anonymous (AA), said:

Alcohol, especially when consumed in excess, can affect teens, women, men, and the elderly quite differently. Women and the elderly tend to have higher blood concentrations of alcohol compared to men and younger individuals who drink the same amount. Alcoholic women are more at risk for developing physical health problems like cirrhosis of the liver and heart and nerve damage at a faster rate than alcohol-dependent men. Interestingly, men and women seem to have similar learning and memory problems as the result of excessive alcohol intake, but again, women tend to develop those problems twice as fast as men.


As defined by the American Society of Addiction Medicine (ASAM), addiction is a disease that disrupts brain chemistry and circuitry, which in turn impacts willpower, reward, memory, and motivation. The first step calls for individuals to accept that they are unable to control their drinking and/or drug use and that their willpower and motivation have been compromised. When someone struggles with addiction, they are no longer able to manage how much and how often drugs and/or alcohol are abused. Recognition of this loss of control and admission of being powerless over addiction is the first step toward recovery.
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