Alcohol use is the fourth leading cause of preventable death in the United States (after smoking, high blood pressure, and obesity). According to a 2018 report from the WHO, in 2016 the harmful use of alcohol resulted in about 3 million deaths, or 5.3% of all deaths around the world, with most of these occurring among men. [1, 2] The economic costs of excessive alcohol consumption in 2010 were estimated at $249 billion, or $2.05 a drink. [3]
This is sort of an obvious one, but helpful to recognize. The easier it is to acquire alcohol, the more likely you are to consume it. The same goes for anything desirable. Accessibility plays a very important role in underage drinking, though. If it’s kept out of the hands of minors, then they can’t drink it! This idea is applicable at all ages. Keep yourself out of situations that involve alcohol and you won’t become an alcoholic.
Types of Files bmp, psd, jpg, png, pdf, doc, docx, xls, xlsx, mp3, wma, wav, mp4, mov, wmv...❓arw, bmp, cr2, crw, dcr, dib, dng, dsc, dt2, emf, eps, fpx, gif, ico, icon, jpeg, jpg, mrw, nef, orf, pcd, pcx, pic, png, psd, ptx, raf, raw, rw2, svg, tga, thm, tif, tiff, wbmp, wdp, webp, wmf, pdf, abw, accdb, accdt, aww, chm, cnt, dbx, djvu, doc, docm, docx, dot, dotm, dotx, epub, gdb, gp4, ind, indd, key, keynote, mdb, mht, mpd, mpp, mpt, numbers, odf, odp, ods, odt, ofxiconofx, one, onepkg, ott, oxps, pages, pmd, pot, potx, pps, ppsx, ppt, pptm, pptx, prn, prproj, pst, pub, pwi, qif, rep, rtf, sdc, sdd, sdw, shs, snp, sxc, sxd, sxi, sxw, thmx, tpl, vsd, vsdx, wlmp, wpd, wps, wri, xlb, xlc, xll, xlm, xls, xlsm, xlsx, xlt, xlw, xps, 3ga, aac, aif, aiff, amr, ape, asf, asx, cda, dvf, flac, gp5, gpx, logic, m4a, m4b, m4p, mid, midi, mp2, mp3, mus, ogg, pcm, rec, rmvb, snd, sng, uax, wav, wma, wp, xm, 264, 3g2, 3gp, asf, asx, avi, bik, dash, dvr, flv, h264, m2t, m2ts, m4v, mkv, mod, mov, mp4, mpeg, mpg, mswmm, mts, ogv, prproj, rec, rmvb, swf, tod, tp, ts, vob, webm, wmv, arw, bmp, cr2, crw, dcr, dib, dng, dsc, dt2, emf, eps, fpx, gif, ico, icon, jpeg, jpg, mrw, nef, orf, pcd, pcx, pic, png, psd, ptx, raf, raw, rw2, svg, tga, thm, tif, tiff, wbmp, wdp, webp, wmf, pdf, abw, accdb, accdt, aww, chm, cnt, dbx, djvu, doc, docm, docx, dot, dotm, dotx, epub, gdb, gp4, ind, indd, key, keynote, mdb, mht, mpd, mpp, mpt, numbers, odf, odp, ods, odt, ofxiconofx, one, onepkg, ott, oxps, pages, pmd, pot, potx, pps, ppsx, ppt, pptm, pptx, prn, prproj, pst, pub, pwi, qif, rep, rtf, sdc, sdd, sdw, shs, snp, sxc, sxd, sxi, sxw, thmx, tpl, vsd, vsdx, wlmp, wpd, wps, wri, xlb, xlc, xll, xlm, xls, xlsm, xlsx, xlt, xlw, xps, 3ga, aac, aif, aiff, amr, ape, asf, asx, cda, dvf, flac, gp5, gpx, logic, m4a, m4b, m4p, mid, midi, mp2, mp3, mus, ogg, pcm, rec, rmvb, snd, sng, uax, wav, wma, wp, xm, 264, 3g2, 3gp, asf, asx, avi, bik, dash, dvr, flv, h264, m2t, m2ts, m4v, mkv, mod, mov, mp4, mpeg, mpg, mswmm, mts, ogv, prproj, rec, rmvb, swf, tod, tp, ts, vob, webm, wmv bmp, psd, jpg, png, pdf, doc, docx, xls, xlsx, mp3, mp4, mov, wmv, bak, sys, rar, csv, exe, msi...❓arw, bmp, cr2, crw, dcr, dib, dng, dsc, dt2, emf, eps, fpx, gif, ico, icon, jpeg, jpg, mrw, nef, orf, pcd, pcx, pic, png, psd, ptx, raf, raw, rw2, svg, tga, thm, tif, tiff, wbmp, wdp, webp, wmf, pdf, abw, accdb, accdt, aww, chm, cnt, dbx, djvu, doc, docm, docx, dot, dotm, dotx, epub, gdb, gp4, ind, indd, key, keynote, mdb, mht, mpd, mpp, mpt, numbers, odf, odp, ods, odt, ofxiconofx, one, onepkg, ott, oxps, pages, pmd, pot, potx, pps, ppsx, ppt, pptm, pptx, prn, prproj, pst, pub, pwi, qif, rep, rtf, sdc, sdd, sdw, shs, snp, sxc, sxd, sxi, sxw, thmx, tpl, vsd, vsdx, wlmp, wpd, wps, wri, xlb, xlc, xll, xlm, xls, xlsm, xlsx, xlt, xlw, xps, 3ga, aac, aif, aiff, amr, ape, asf, asx, cda, dvf, flac, gp5, gpx, logic, m4a, m4b, m4p, mid, midi, mp2, mp3, mus, ogg, pcm, rec, rmvb, snd, sng, uax, wav, wma, wp, xm, 264, 3g2, 3gp, asf, asx, avi, bik, dash, dvr, flv, h264, m2t, m2ts, m4v, mkv, mod, mov, mp4, mpeg, mpg, mswmm, mts, ogv, prproj, rec, rmvb, swf, tod, tp, ts, vob, webm, wmv, txt, csv, inf, ini, c, php, tex, jsp, asp, java, ly, h, json, pl, py, rb, sh, adr, cls, cue, dif, dp, emk, hdr, jad, lyx, m3u, mem, msf, sql, pts, qgs, ram, reg, rpp, SeeNeT, slk, snz, stp, url, vbm, wpl, js, mdl, msi, bak, cgi, cpp, hpp, afl, cfg, dll, exe, lib, log, manifest, ipch, ilk, obj, pri, pri~, pro, qml, qml~, sln, suo, tmp, vcproj, vcxproj, user, user~, wixobj, wixpdb, wxs, a, bat, cab, dat, cc, aps, cer, msm, msp, pem, pfx, pli, pvk, qm, ts, qmltypes, qrc, rc, rc2, ptn, res, scl, scr, ui, use, wxl
During Step 9, individuals will attempt to make amends for wrongdoings done to specific individuals. People are encouraged to reach out to these individuals and let them know that they would like to approach them to make amends. It can be very humbling to do so. In some cases, it is not possible to have these conversations directly, or doing so would be more harmful, so indirect methods may be ideal. Individuals can write a letter to the person (even if it will never actually be delivered), or they may choose to donate to a charity in their honor or help someone else in need.
Jump up ^ Littrell, Jill (2014). Understanding and Treating Alcoholism Volume I: An Empirically Based Clinician's Handbook for the Treatment of Alcoholism: Volume Ii: Biological, Psychological, and Social Aspects of Alcohol Consumption and Abuse. Hoboken: Taylor and Francis. p. 55. ISBN 9781317783145. Archived from the original on 20 July 2017. The World Health Organization defines alcoholism as any drinking which results in problems
Treatments are varied because there are multiple perspectives of alcoholism. Those who approach alcoholism as a medical condition or disease recommend differing treatments from, for instance, those who approach the condition as one of social choice. Most treatments focus on helping people discontinue their alcohol intake, followed up with life training and/or social support to help them resist a return to alcohol use. Since alcoholism involves multiple factors which encourage a person to continue drinking, they must all be addressed to successfully prevent a relapse. An example of this kind of treatment is detoxification followed by a combination of supportive therapy, attendance at self-help groups, and ongoing development of coping mechanisms. The treatment community for alcoholism typically supports an abstinence-based zero tolerance approach; however, some prefer a harm-reduction approach.[125]
The National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) study suggests the transition from use to dependence was highest for nicotine users, followed by cocaine, alcohol, and cannabis users. [10] An increased risk of transition to dependence among minorities and those with psychiatric or dependence comorbidity highlights the importance of promoting outreach and treatment of these populations.
When most people think about “alcoholism,” they assume the chronic severe group is the only group. However, adolescents and young adults, both with and without mental illnesses, can struggle with compulsive behaviors around alcohol, and many adults in the US are dependent on alcohol to stabilize their emotions. These conditions, too, indicate a potential AUD. If alcohol abuse remains unaddressed, it can lead to severe health consequences, both acute and chronic.

Misuse, problem use, abuse, and heavy use of alcohol refer to improper use of alcohol, which may cause physical, social, or moral harm to the drinker.[91] The Dietary Guidelines for Americans defines "moderate use" as no more than two alcoholic beverages a day for men and no more than one alcoholic beverage a day for women.[92] Some drinkers may drink more than 600 ml of alcohol per day during a heavy drinking period.[93] The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) defines binge drinking as the amount of alcohol leading to a blood alcohol content (BAC) of 0.08, which, for most adults, would be reached by consuming five drinks for men or four for women over a two-hour period. According to the NIAAA, men may be at risk for alcohol-related problems if their alcohol consumption exceeds 14 standard drinks per week or 4 drinks per day, and women may be at risk if they have more than 7 standard drinks per week or 3 drinks per day. It defines a standard drink as one 12-ounce bottle of beer, one 5-ounce glass of wine, or 1.5 ounces of distilled spirits.[94] Despite this risk, a 2014 report in the National Survey on Drug Use and Health found that only 10% of either "heavy drinkers" or "binge drinkers" defined according to the above criteria also met the criteria for alcohol dependence, while only 1.3% of non-binge drinkers met the criteria. An inference drawn from this study is that evidence-based policy strategies and clinical preventive services may effectively reduce binge drinking without requiring addiction treatment in most cases.[95]
Topiramate, a derivative of the naturally occurring sugar monosaccharide D-fructose, has been found effective in helping alcoholics quit or cut back on the amount they drink. Evidence suggests that topiramate antagonizes excitatory glutamate receptors, inhibits dopamine release, and enhances inhibitory gamma-aminobutyric acid function. A 2008 review of the effectiveness of topiramate concluded that the results of published trials are promising, however, as of 2008, data was insufficient to support using topiramate in conjunction with brief weekly compliance counseling as a first-line agent for alcohol dependence.[177] A 2010 review found that topiramate may be superior to existing alcohol pharmacotherapeutic options. Topiramate effectively reduces craving and alcohol withdrawal severity as well as improving quality-of-life-ratings.[178]

Many newcomers who attend 12-step meetings find personal validation in the stories of other addicts. Substance abusers who have been isolated by their disease have the opportunity to relieve their pain by sharing their experiences with others. Alcoholics who have lost their jobs, families, and dignity can recover their self-respect and restore broken relationships with the help of the fellowship and the 12 steps.


Jump up ^ Sullivan, JT; Sykora, K; Schneiderman, J; Naranjo, CA; Sellers, EM (November 1989). "Assessment of alcohol withdrawal: the revised clinical institute withdrawal assessment for alcohol scale (CIWA-Ar)" (PDF). Br J Addict. 84 (11): 1353–7. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.489.341. doi:10.1111/j.1360-0443.1989.tb00737.x. PMID 2597811. Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 August 2013. Retrieved 25 October 2017.

Up to 30% of children are offered drugs before graduating high school, and for alcohol, it’s three out of every four kids who are offered. Peer pressure is a beast. Fitting-in is extremely important in high school, and unfortunately drinking alcohol is a common marker of ‘being cool.’ Peer pressure does not end after 12th grade, though. Oftentimes adults are pressured into drinking at social events when they don’t want to. Over time, this can be habit-forming.


This depends on what kind of files you are trying to recover. We know in many cases, a user is only interested in one category of file types, example: multimedia, Picture, Documents, or Development. Thus Seagate has designed our software to fit the user’s needs. If you have run into the problem of losing all files types on a drive, then the Premium version would be the best choice. The Premium version has the capability of finding all file types.

Our Mission: To provide evidenced-based, compassionate care in a professional and collaborative manner which creates an atmosphere of hope that not only promotes recovery from alcohol or drug addiction, but provides a space where patients can discover their highest human potential and be inspired to make recovery-oriented changes medically, socially, emotionally and/or spiritually.
The Serenity Prayer is learned, which is meant to be used whenever individuals need a reminder in their lives. The Serenity Prayer is as follows: “God grant me the serenity to accept the things I cannot change; courage to change the things I can; and wisdom to know the difference.”  This prayer is considered a cornerstone of many 12-Step programs as it embodies the idea that individuals need to accept the control that alcohol and drugs have over them, gain strength to work at remaining sober, and know when things are changeable and when they are not. Step 3 asks individuals to be willing to let God, in whatever form that is for each person, fully into their lives.
Alcoholics Anonymous is the largest of all the twelve-step programs (from which all other twelve-steps programs are derived), followed by Narcotics Anonymous; the majority of twelve-step members are recovering from addiction to alcohol or other drugs. The majority of twelve-step programs, however, address illnesses other than substance addiction. For example, the third-largest twelve-step program, Al-Anon, assists family members and friends of people who have alcoholism and other addictions. About twenty percent of twelve-step programs are for substance addiction recovery, the other eighty percent address a variety of problems from debt to depression.[36] It would be an error to assume the effectiveness of twelve-step methods at treating problems in one domain translates to all or to another domain,[37] therefore readers are directed to relevant sections in each group's article.
The World Health Organization estimates that as of 2010 there were 208 million people with alcoholism worldwide (4.1% of the population over 15 years of age).[9][10] In the United States, about 17 million (7%) of adults and 0.7 million (2.8%) of those age 12 to 17 years of age are affected.[11] It is more common among males and young adults, becoming less common in middle and old age.[3] It is the least common in Africa, at 1.1%, and has the highest rates in Eastern Europe, at 11%.[3] Alcoholism directly resulted in 139,000 deaths in 2013, up from 112,000 deaths in 1990.[21] A total of 3.3 million deaths (5.9% of all deaths) are believed to be due to alcohol.[11] It often reduces a person's life expectancy by around ten years.[22] In the United States, it resulted in economic costs of $224 billion USD in 2006.[11] Many terms, some insulting and others informal, have been used to refer to people affected by alcoholism; the expressions include tippler, drunkard, dipsomaniac and souse.[23] In 1979, the World Health Organization discouraged the use of "alcoholism" due to its inexact meaning, preferring "alcohol dependence syndrome".[24]
Added fat and scar tissue on the liver due to excessive alcohol consumption can lead to all sorts of problems, but most often either cirrhosis or alcohol-induced hepatitis. Liver failure among those who drink heavily for many years is likely. Pancreatitis, or the consistent inflammation of the pancreas, can also cause damage to the body, including high blood sugar leading to diabetes.
At Wyoming Recovery, a patient may begin treatment at residential or outpatient levels of care, depending on the assessment of multiple dimensions, such as: need for detoxification, presence of complicating physical or emotional symptoms and level of support in home/work environments. Typically, a patient will transition from one level to another depending on progress, there is not a fixed length of stay. We offer the following levels of care:
The World Health Organization estimates that as of 2010 there were 208 million people with alcoholism worldwide (4.1% of the population over 15 years of age).[9][10] In the United States, about 17 million (7%) of adults and 0.7 million (2.8%) of those age 12 to 17 years of age are affected.[11] It is more common among males and young adults, becoming less common in middle and old age.[3] It is the least common in Africa, at 1.1%, and has the highest rates in Eastern Europe, at 11%.[3] Alcoholism directly resulted in 139,000 deaths in 2013, up from 112,000 deaths in 1990.[21] A total of 3.3 million deaths (5.9% of all deaths) are believed to be due to alcohol.[11] It often reduces a person's life expectancy by around ten years.[22] In the United States, it resulted in economic costs of $224 billion USD in 2006.[11] Many terms, some insulting and others informal, have been used to refer to people affected by alcoholism; the expressions include tippler, drunkard, dipsomaniac and souse.[23] In 1979, the World Health Organization discouraged the use of "alcoholism" due to its inexact meaning, preferring "alcohol dependence syndrome".[24]
Clear communication by parents about the negative effects of alcohol, as well as about their expectations regarding drug use, has been found to significantly decrease alcohol use in teens. Adequate parental supervision has also been found to be a deterrent to underage alcohol abuse. Alcohol, and other drug use, has been found to occur most often between the hours of 3 p.m. and 6 p.m., immediately after school and prior to parents' arrival at home from work. Teen participation in extracurricular activities has therefore been revealed to be an important prevention measure for the use of alcohol in this age group. Parents can also help educate teens about appropriate coping and stress-management strategies. For example, 15- to 16-year-olds who use religion to cope with stress tend to use drugs significantly less often and have fewer problems as a result of drinking than their peers who do not use religion to cope.
Also, some free data recovery software are pushing users to buy their Pro versions. A good example is Recuva. I just tested the last version of Recuva on a Windows-10 based PC, and I instantly felt the maker is promoting Recuva Professional more aggressively than before though the free version should be enough to handle your data recovery needs. By the way, in case you don't know. The maker of Recuva and CCleaner, Piriform, got acquired by Avast in 2017. Now you get the point 🙂 But Recuva is still free to use if you can spot out the catch (and I'll point it out below). 

Detoxification begins 4–6 hours after the last consumption of alcohol and lasts for 5–7 days. In this period, diazepam is administered every six hours to control the detoxification process and withdrawal symptoms. While detoxification often occurs in hospitals, some people undergo detoxification in their homes. However, patients should not consider undergoing detoxification at home if they have suicidal feelings, do not have friends and family to support them, or have experienced severe withdrawal symptoms before.


Alcohol use disorder (which includes a level that's sometimes called alcoholism) is a pattern of alcohol use that involves problems controlling your drinking, being preoccupied with alcohol, continuing to use alcohol even when it causes problems, having to drink more to get the same effect, or having withdrawal symptoms when you rapidly decrease or stop drinking.
Lost data can cause financial problems and emotional heartache. You probably have hundreds of photos and sound files that you can't bear to lose. A reliable backup system is the best option, but data recovery software is the second-best, and sometimes the only, choice available. Look into our suggestions now, so you'll be ready if disaster strikes.
Recovering data from large hard drives or memory cards can be a time consuming process. In an ideal world we would be able to sit around and wait, but that is not always the case, which is why Disk Drill features powerful session management features. Scans can be paused, stopped or resumed anytime. This means that you do not need to wait for a full scan to finish if you have already found the file you were after, simply stop the scan and recover it. If you need to pause a scan to step away or turn off your computer, no problem! Come back and resume a scan anytime exactly where you left off in a prior session.

Yes, after scanning your drive/device and choosing which files you would like to recover/save from the preview, you may select a network drive as the location you would like to save to. The network drive must be accessible from Windows Explorer or Mac Finder and you must have permission to access the location. It does not need to be a mapped network drive to work. Just be sure there is enough free space on the network drive to hold the files you are saving there.
The Big Book was originally written as a guide for people who couldn’t attend AA fellowship meetings, but it soon became a model for the program in general. It has since been adopted as a model for a wide range of addiction peer-support and self-help programs designed to help drive behavioral change. In addition to the original Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) group, various offshoots now exist, such as Narcotics Anonymous (NA), Heroin Anonymous (HA), and Gamblers Anonymous (GA).
Stanton Peele argued that some AA groups apply the disease model to all problem drinkers, whether or not they are "full-blown" alcoholics.[90] Along with Nancy Shute, Peele has advocated that besides AA, other options should be readily available to those problem drinkers who are able to manage their drinking with the right treatment.[91] The Big Book says "moderate drinkers" and "a certain type of hard drinker" are able to stop or moderate their drinking. The Big Book suggests no program for these drinkers, but instead seeks to help drinkers without "power of choice in drink."[92]
While this provides a blanket of comfort and security to the many thousands of people it helps, the secrecy has not gone over well with the more scientifically minded in the treatment community. The success and acceptance of the program has clashed with the desire for evidence and statistics, leading to Pacific Standard saying that AA is not a form of professional treatment, and it offers mixed results; but as a “mutual aid organization,” the 12-Step method comes into its own. Similarly, The Atlantic goes so far as to call Alcoholics Anonymous a pseudoscientific organization, one that dictated the treatment conversation for generations (to the point where its claimed success rate of 75 percent went unquestioned for decades), but has overstayed its privileged place in American culture.
According to Vaillant's research, inner-city men began problem drinking approximately 10 years earlier than college graduates (age 25–30 y vs age 40–45 y). Inner-city men were more likely to be abstinent from alcohol consumption than college graduates (30% vs 10%) but more likely to die from drinking (30% vs 15%). A large percentage of college graduates alternated between controlled drinking and alcohol abuse for many years. Returning to controlled drinking from alcohol abuse is uncommon, no more than 10%; however, this figure is likely to be high because it was obtained from self-reported data. Mortality in both groups was related strongly to smoking. Abstinence for less than 5–6 years did not predict continued abstinence (41% of men abstinent for 2 y relapsed).
A cross-sectional survey of substance-misuse treatment providers in the West Midlands found fewer than 10% integrated twelve-step methods in their practice and only a third felt their consumers were suited for Alcoholics Anonymous or Narcotics Anonymous membership. Less than half were likely to recommend self-help groups to their clients. Providers with nursing qualifications were more likely to make such referrals than those without them. A statistically significant correlation was found between providers' self-reported level of spirituality and their likelihood of recommending AA or NA.[87]
Set in beautiful Calistoga, California, Duffy's Napa Valley Rehab is a comprehensive treatment center where men and women can come to heal from addictions of all kinds. At Duffy's, residents are empowered to break free from chemical dependency and gain the skills they need to live the healthy, vibrant lives they deserve. For more information please call (866) 869-3318
Michael M. Miller, MD, FASAM, FAPA, is the medical director of the Herrington Recovery Center at Rogers Memorial Hospital-Oconomowoc. He is a board-certified general psychiatrist and addiction psychiatrist. Dr. Miller has practiced addiction medicine for more than 30 years and is certified in addiction medicine by the American Board of Addiction Medicine. Dr. Miller is also an at-large director of the American Board of Addiction Medicine and The ABAM Foundation. He is a past president of ASAM.
Another important point about 12 Step programs is their cost and accessibility.  What other chronic lifelong disease has an equally accessible and cost effective (free) intervention?    Like any disease, part of our job as physicians is to recommend effective treatment which our patients can both access and afford.  I'd like for my patients to be able to access and afford all useful modalities of addiction treatment, but here at least is one they can all use.   

During 2018, Celebrate your "Sobriety Birthday" by contributing a $ amount to Central Office equal to the number of years of sobriety you're celebrating. Click Here for the latest listing of the Buck-a-year program participants. On your AA Birthday, make your contribution at Central Office by cash, check, or credit card, or by check in the mail. (Note: include with your contribution your 1st name, last initial, home group & sobriety date.) Or you can contribute online using PAYPAL or a credit or debit card - enter your 1st name, last initial, home group & sobriety date in the boxes below, then click Pay Now, enter the amount, and choose your method of payment
While 12-Step facilitation programs don’t necessarily follow the steps, they promote the use of a 12-Step methodology, in the hope that clients will move to a 12-Step program after rehab to help maintain sobriety. In addition, certain treatment centers base their model for service around some of the ideas promoted through the 12-Step program. These centers can offer research-based services and promote a more scientific understanding of addiction treatment, but they incorporate some of the spiritual, psychological, and practical practices that the 12-Step program promotes. This results in an encompassing model of care designed to support clients through rehab and to give tools that they can use after treatment to maintain their recovery for the long-term.

The NIAAA defines risky drinking of "standard drinks," with one standard drink equal to about 12 ounces of typical American beer, 5 ounces of wine, or 1.5 ounces of hard liquor. These figures are based on "typical" (mass market) forms of beer and wine; particularly for beer, many specialty beers may contain up to twice the amount of alcohol as a mass market beer does. For wine, the alcohol content is more constant, but wine coolers often contain less alcohol and some types of wine, such as zinfandels and port, may contain twice the average amount of alcohol. For men, 4 or more drinks a day or 14 or more a week within the last year is considered risky, while for women it is 3 or more a day or 7 or more a week.


Benzodiazepines, while useful in the management of acute alcohol withdrawal, if used long-term can cause a worse outcome in alcoholism. Alcoholics on chronic benzodiazepines have a lower rate of achieving abstinence from alcohol than those not taking benzodiazepines. This class of drugs is commonly prescribed to alcoholics for insomnia or anxiety management.[139] Initiating prescriptions of benzodiazepines or sedative-hypnotics in individuals in recovery has a high rate of relapse with one author reporting more than a quarter of people relapsed after being prescribed sedative-hypnotics. Those who are long-term users of benzodiazepines should not be withdrawn rapidly, as severe anxiety and panic may develop, which are known risk factors for relapse into alcohol abuse. Taper regimes of 6–12 months have been found to be the most successful, with reduced intensity of withdrawal.[140][141]
One failing that bothered us in all these apps—including our top picks—is that they didn't even warn us that we couldn't recover files from an SSD. It's easy for an app to tell whether a drive uses spinning-platter or SSD technology, and easy to tell whether TRIM technology is active in a drive. All of the software we reviewed, both on the Mac and PC, misleadingly told us that they were able to recover deleted files from SSDs—and then disappointed us by providing corrupt and unusable files instead of the ones we wanted. We hope that the next generation of data recovery software is redesigned to make it clear that we can't hope for file recovery on SSDs unless the deleted files are safely in the Recycle Bin—where, of course, they're easy to find without using recovery software.
The first female member, Florence Rankin, joined AA in March 1937,[6][7] and the first non-Protestant member, a Roman Catholic, joined in 1939.[8] The first Black AA group was established in 1945 in Washington DC by Jim S., an African-American physician from Virginia.[9][10] AA membership has since spread internationally "across diverse cultures holding different beliefs and values", including geopolitical areas resistant to grassroots movements.[11] Close to 2 million people worldwide are members of AA as of 2016.[12]
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Thank you for letting Los Angles Central Office serve and support you. LACO maintains this website and publishes both the online and print meeting directories, and it is the information hub for AA in the Los Angeles area. At Central Office volunteers are of service 365 days a year answering the phones and sharing experience, strength and hope. Let us know how we can help your group carry the message.
Set in beautiful Calistoga, California, Duffy's Napa Valley Rehab is a comprehensive treatment center where men and women can come to heal from addictions of all kinds. At Duffy's, residents are empowered to break free from chemical dependency and gain the skills they need to live the healthy, vibrant lives they deserve. For more information please call (866) 869-3318
A member who accepts a service position or an organizing role is a "trusted servant" with terms rotating and limited, typically lasting three months to two years and determined by group vote and the nature of the position. Each group is a self-governing entity with AA World Services acting only in an advisory capacity. AA is served entirely by alcoholics, except for seven "nonalcoholic friends of the fellowship" of the 21-member AA Board of Trustees.[25]
Cirrhosis of the liver refers to a disease in which normal liver cells are replaced by scar tissue caused by alcohol and viral hepatitis B and C. This disease leads to abnormalities in the liver's ability to handle toxins and blood flow, causing internal bleeding, kidney failure, mental confusion, coma, body fluid accumulation, and frequent infections.
WHO's ICD-10 "alcohol harmful use" and "alcohol dependence syndrome" Definitions are similar to that of the DSM-IV. The World Health Organization uses the term "alcohol dependence syndrome" rather than alcoholism.[24] The concept of "harmful use" (as opposed to "abuse") was introduced in 1992's ICD-10 to minimize underreporting of damage in the absence of dependence.[100] The term "alcoholism" was removed from ICD between ICD-8/ICDA-8 and ICD-9.[103]
Set in beautiful Calistoga, California, Duffy's Napa Valley Rehab is a comprehensive treatment center where men and women can come to heal from addictions of all kinds. At Duffy's, residents are empowered to break free from chemical dependency and gain the skills they need to live the healthy, vibrant lives they deserve. For more information please call (866) 869-3318

I am appalled that a book written by two extremely disturbed privileged white males who lived in 1930s Jim Crow era America is still the "treatment " standard for addiction. AA has been ruled a religious organization by several federal circuit courts, and it is impossible to work the program without a belief in a God who magically answers prayers for the addict who prays hard enough. It is not possible to turn one's will and life over to the care of Nature, or a Doorknob, or the Group of Drunks. One is guided through the steps by someone who is only qualified by the amount of sober time they claim to have. 12 step groups are especially dangerous for survivors of rape, abuse, and other trauma when they are tasked to examine "their part" in the crimes committed against them, not to mention having to defend themselves against the unethical yet joked about 13th Step.
AA says it is "not organized in the formal or political sense",[25] and Bill Wilson called it a "benign anarchy".[26] In Ireland, Shane Butler said that AA “looks like it couldn’t survive as there’s no leadership or top-level telling local cumanns what to do, but it has worked and proved itself extremely robust.” Butler explained that "AA’s 'inverted pyramid' style of governance has helped it to avoid many of the pitfalls that political and religious institutions have encountered since it was established here in 1946."[27]
The reason that data recovery software can't recover data from SSDs is simple. Virtually all current SSDs use so-called TRIM technology that increases efficiency and disk life by clearing disk sectors that are not being used. One result of this is that the data can't be recovered by software, even if the file system retains its record of the sectors where the data used to be. With traditional spinning hard drives and USB flash drives, file recovery is relatively simple. Recovery software can find the location of a file's data even if you've emptied the Recycle Bin, often even if you've reformatted the disk. But once a file is deleted from an SSD, and the Recycle Bin has been emptied, there's no hope of ever getting that file back again, unless you have a backup somewhere.
We take your privacy seriously and understand the magnitude of your current situation, as well as its impact on your career and family. While we are required to report monitoring information for mandated admissions, health care professionals entering IPRP on a voluntary basis have complete confidentiality. So, don't hesitate to pick up the phone and call us for more information. 
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Alcohol intoxication results as the amount of alcohol in your bloodstream increases. The higher the blood alcohol concentration is, the more impaired you become. Alcohol intoxication causes behavior problems and mental changes. These may include inappropriate behavior, unstable moods, impaired judgment, slurred speech, impaired attention or memory, and poor coordination. You can also have periods called "blackouts," where you don't remember events. Very high blood alcohol levels can lead to coma or even death.
Caucasians have a much lower abstinence rate (11.8%) and much higher tolerance to symptoms (3.4±2.45 drinks) of alcohol than Chinese (33.4% and 2.2±1.78 drinks respectively). Also, the more acculturation there is between cultures, the more influenced the culture is to adopt Caucasians drinking practices.[175] Peyote, a psychoactive agent, has even shown promise in treating alcoholism. Alcohol had actually replaced peyote as Native Americans’ psychoactive agent of choice in rituals when peyote was outlawed.[176]

Meditation, prayer, and journaling make up Step 11 as individuals use these tools to form a spiritual connection with God or the higher power. Quiet time and solitude provide for self-reflection, and meditation can be helpful to increase the connection between the body, mind, and soul. When a person is in tune with themselves physically and emotionally, the spiritual aspect is also strengthened. Journaling during Step 11 can be a beneficial way to explore thoughts and emotions more fully as well.
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