The Big Book was originally written as a guide for people who couldn’t attend AA fellowship meetings, but it soon became a model for the program in general. It has since been adopted as a model for a wide range of addiction peer-support and self-help programs designed to help drive behavioral change. In addition to the original Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) group, various offshoots now exist, such as Narcotics Anonymous (NA), Heroin Anonymous (HA), and Gamblers Anonymous (GA).
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Situated at the foothills of the Great Smoky Mountains, Village Behavioral Health offers an ideal setting for adolescents to begin facing their difficulties free from distractions. Our programs's goal is to help teenagers make better choices by helping them understand how poor choices have affected them in the past. Village Behavioral Health provides a safe, secure, and serene setting to allow treatment to truly begin. Family involvement is essential to make a lasting change. For the adolescent to get the full benefit of our program, we believe the family must be active participants in the treatment process. Family Therapy occurs on a regular basis and is a critical part of our program, ensuring long-term success of the youth. Village Behavioral Health’s Alcohol & Drug Program follows the 12-step model. Each adolescent begins their treatment within the 12-step model and engages in on-campus groups. Adolescents are also introduced to a relapse prevention program and guided in gaining control over their substance abuse and addiction.


The Hazelden Betty Ford Foundation is a force of healing and hope for individuals, families and communities affected by addiction to alcohol and other drugs. It is the nation's largest nonprofit treatment provider, with a legacy that began in 1949 and includes the 1982 founding of the Betty Ford Center. With 17 sites in California, Minnesota, Oregon, Illinois, New York, Florida, Massachusetts, Colorado and Texas, the Foundation offers prevention and recovery solutions nationwide and across the entire continuum of care for youth and adults.
Twelve-Step Recovery addresses the psychology of the person with addiction as well as the individual’s spirituality--his/her values, his/her connectedness to others, and his/her willingness to engage with others and humbly ask for help. The process of change in Twelve-Step Recovery starts with an acceptance that when friends or loved ones point out that things are amiss in one’s life, they are likely correct, and things have likely become unmanageable. And while taking personal responsibility and accepting accountability for one’s actions are considered key steps, Twelve-Step Recovery outlines that excessive self-reliance and the firm stance that “I can get myself out of this,” and “I know what to do about this,” will be roadblocks to recovery from addiction. “Getting out of oneself” and recognizing that one doesn’t have all the answers, and humbly asking for help from another human being—from a health professional or from a lay person—are behaviors and behavioral styles that are promoted by Alcoholics Anonymous and related “Twelve-Step” programs of peer support.
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Most experts believe that a research-based, residential treatment program that is customized to an individual’s needs is the most effective method to achieve and maintain recovery. Whether this program includes 12-Step aspects, is based on the 12-Step concept, or is an alternative to this original model of addiction treatment, it’s important that care is customized to the individual. Working with an addiction treatment professional is a good way to find the treatment modality that is appropriate for each person, leading to the best path to recovery.
In collaboration with University of Texas Southwestern (UTSW) psychiatrists, we provide truly integrated care for mental and behavioral health and substance abuse issues. Our expert team is led by Dr. David Atkinson, a full-time psychiatrist who is dually board certified in child adolescent psychiatry and addiction psychiatry. His addiction fellowship training at Mayo Clinic helped him understand the addiction treatment process and its connection to many teens’ mental health issues.
Chemically, alcohol tends to decrease the chemical activity of substances that affect the nervous system, to inhibit behavior (gamma aminobutyric acid, also called GABA signaling) and increase the activity of pleasure-seeking processes (glutamate). That can result in people being less inhibited in their words and actions and more likely to engage in immediately pleasurable activities even if they are unsafe. Even light drinkers can experience shrinking of parts of the brain. Intoxication with alcohol can be characterized by slurred speech, clumsiness, sleepiness, headaches, distorted senses, lapses in memory, nausea, vomiting, and loss of consciousness.
Risk factors for developing a drinking problem include depression, anxiety, or another mood problem in the individual, as well as having parents with addiction. Low self-esteem and feeling out of place are other risk factors for developing alcohol dependence. In women, antisocial behaviors and impulsivity are associated with the development of severe alcohol use disorder. Both men and women are more likely to develop alcoholism if they have a childhood history of being physically or sexually abused. Children and teens who have their first drink of alcohol between 11 and 14 years of age are more at risk for developing a drinking alcohol problems than those who do so when either younger or older.
During addiction recovery, individuals in treatment may also undergo various types of therapy and participate in support groups as they work to address and heal the attitudes, thoughts, emotions and behaviors that led to substance abuse in the first place. Ongoing participation in therapy and support groups may continue long after the initial period of treatment as they may continue to provide lasting recovery benefit for many individuals.
The various health problems associated with long-term alcohol consumption are generally perceived as detrimental to society, for example, money due to lost labor-hours, medical costs due to injuries due to drunkenness and organ damage from long-term use, and secondary treatment costs, such as the costs of rehabilitation facilities and detoxification centers. Alcohol use is a major contributing factor for head injuries, motor vehicle accidents (due to drunk driving), domestic violence, and assaults. Beyond the financial costs that alcohol consumption imposes, there are also significant social costs to both the alcoholic and their family and friends.[55] For instance, alcohol consumption by a pregnant woman can lead to fetal alcohol syndrome,[165] an incurable and damaging condition.[166] Estimates of the economic costs of alcohol abuse, collected by the World Health Organization, vary from one to six percent of a country's GDP.[167] One Australian estimate pegged alcohol's social costs at 24% of all drug abuse costs; a similar Canadian study concluded alcohol's share was 41%.[168] One study quantified the cost to the UK of all forms of alcohol misuse in 2001 as £18.5–20 billion.[148][169] All economic costs in the United States in 2006 have been estimated at $223.5 billion.[170]
Of the over 16 million people in the country who have a potential AUD, 9.8 million men and 5.3 million women respectively have a diagnosable AUD. About 10 percent of children in the US have at least one parent who struggles with problem drinking, and about 31 percent of driving fatalities in the US involve a drunk driver. Unfortunately, very few people every year seek treatment for AUD despite physical, mental, social, financial, and legal ramifications.
The support of a strong social network. In that same vein, since AA has been around for so long and is so widely instituted, its networks of support are both widespread and firmly rooted. Combined with that is the emphasis the 12-Step program places on having a sponsor to provide encouragement and motivation as well as regularly attending group meetings and finding strength through your peers.
AA says it is "not organized in the formal or political sense",[25] and Bill Wilson called it a "benign anarchy".[26] In Ireland, Shane Butler said that AA “looks like it couldn’t survive as there’s no leadership or top-level telling local cumanns what to do, but it has worked and proved itself extremely robust.” Butler explained that "AA’s 'inverted pyramid' style of governance has helped it to avoid many of the pitfalls that political and religious institutions have encountered since it was established here in 1946."[27]
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Most Twelve Step participants view addiction as a lifelong disease and see the Twelve Steps as their new design for living. When people whose lives have been affected by addiction work the Twelve Steps, they can better sort out the things which they have no control over, and the things for which they are responsible. Group meetings offer a safe place to share one's experience, strength and hope, and to receive support and fellowship.
Alcohol inhibits the receptor for glutamate. Long-term ingestion results in the synthesis of more glutamate receptors. When alcohol is withdrawn, the central nervous system experiences increased excitability. Persons who abuse alcohol over the long term are more prone to alcohol withdrawal syndrome than persons who have been drinking for only short periods. Brain excitability caused by long-term alcohol ingestion can lead to cell death and cerebellar degeneration, Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome, tremors, alcoholic hallucinosis, delirium tremens, and withdrawal seizures. Opiate receptors are increased in the brains of recently abstinent alcoholic patients, and the number of receptors correlates with cravings for alcohol.

Alcohol affects virtually every organ system in the body and, in high doses, can cause coma and death. It affects several neurotransmitter systems in the brain, including opiates, GABA, glutamate, serotonin, and dopamine. Increased opiate levels help explain the euphoric effect of alcohol, while its effects on GABA cause anxiolytic and sedative effects.
Set in beautiful Calistoga, California, Duffy's Napa Valley Rehab is a comprehensive treatment center where men and women can come to heal from addictions of all kinds. At Duffy's, residents are empowered to break free from chemical dependency and gain the skills they need to live the healthy, vibrant lives they deserve. For more information please call (866) 869-3318

Each person will have their own idea of who or what the higher power is to them, and in Step 3, individuals are asked to turn their lives over to this power for healing purposes. Steps 1 and 2 are all about reflection, learning that alcohol (or drugs) is a driving force in life and that a higher power is needed to recover and remain sober. With Step 3, individuals are called to action and to a willingness to change moving forward.
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WHO's ICD-10 "alcohol harmful use" and "alcohol dependence syndrome" Definitions are similar to that of the DSM-IV. The World Health Organization uses the term "alcohol dependence syndrome" rather than alcoholism.[24] The concept of "harmful use" (as opposed to "abuse") was introduced in 1992's ICD-10 to minimize underreporting of damage in the absence of dependence.[100] The term "alcoholism" was removed from ICD between ICD-8/ICDA-8 and ICD-9.[103]
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Ten health risks of chronic heavy drinking A wide range of factors determines how the body responds to chronic heavy drinking. A single binge-drinking episode can result in significant harm, and excessive consumption of alcohol is the fourth-leading preventable cause of death in the U.S. Learn about the ten diseases most commonly linked to heavy drinking here. Read now
Addiction is a complex brain disease that impacts people emotionally, physically, socially, financially, behaviorally, and personally. Families and loved ones are negatively affected as well. Addiction recovery is aided by professional treatment programs and by engaging in support groups that can offer encouragement, hope, and healthy peer interactions. These self-help groups aid in facilitating the formation of groups of people who have similar goals for sobriety and long-term abstinence from drugs and alcohol. The idea of a 12-Step program began with Alcoholics Anonymous, or AA, a program designed to support individuals struggling with addiction to alcohol in their recovery efforts.

Diabetes: There is a high risk of developing diabetes type 2, and people with diabetes have a high chance of complications if they regularly consume more alcohol than is recommended. Alcohol prevents the release of glucose from the liver, resulting in hypoglycemia. If a person with diabetes is already using insulin to lower their blood sugar levels, hypoglycemia could have serious consequences.
Many AA meetings take place in treatment facilities. Carrying the message of AA into hospitals was how the co-founders of AA first remained sober. They discovered great value of working with alcoholics who are still suffering, and that even if the alcoholic they were working with did not stay sober, they did.[74][75][76] Bill Wilson wrote, "Practical experience shows that nothing will so much insure immunity from drinking as intensive work with other alcoholics".[77] Bill Wilson visited Towns Hospital in New York City in an attempt to help the alcoholics who were patients there in 1934. At St. Thomas Hospital in Akron, Ohio, Smith worked with still more alcoholics. In 1939, a New York mental institution, Rockland State Hospital, was one of the first institutions to allow AA hospital groups. Service to corrections and treatment facilities used to be combined until the General Service Conference, in 1977, voted to dissolve its Institutions Committee and form two separate committees, one for treatment facilities, and one for correctional facilities.[78]

Studies suggest that certain individuals are more likely to become alcoholics. People with a history of alcoholism in their family have an increased chance of becoming alcoholics. People who start drinking at an early age are also at a greater risk of developing alcoholic tendencies than those who begin drinking later in life. Men are more prone to become alcoholics, but women are much more likely to develop harmful medical effects that are linked to drinking such as liver disease.

As AA chapters were increasing in number during the 1930s and 1940s, the guiding principles were gradually defined as the Twelve Traditions. A singleness of purpose emerged as Tradition Five: "Each group has but one primary purpose—to carry its message to the alcoholic who still suffers".[8] Consequently, drug addicts who do not suffer from the specifics of alcoholism involved in AA hoping for recovery technically are not welcome in "closed" meetings unless they have a desire to stop drinking alcohol.[9]
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