Prioritizing coping over healing. While AA obviously wants its members to avoid relapse and maintain sobriety, the means of doing so is heavily focused on using skills to cope with addictive behaviors rather than addressing the underlying issues that are causing them. Because of this, many people find the 12-Step program might help them stay sober, but leave them still struggling with the problems that led to becoming alcoholics in the first place.
Babies who are born to mothers who are heavy drinkers are more at risk for being born with significant medical, developmental, behavioral, and emotional problems, including fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). However, many babies whose mothers consumed even minimal amounts of alcohol during pregnancy have been born with such problems. Therefore, there is no amount of alcohol intake that has been proven to be safe during pregnancy.
I am still surprised and disappointed by professionals who focus on the all or nothing, right vs wrong approach to treatment.  I think we owe to all our lie RS and the treatment community to learn about the different options our clients may encounter and professionally guide them to the best match for them on the present.  Why do some addicts have years of solid recovery with one approach over another probably won't have definitive explanation other than every addict is unique. We support them. We I still response single hope and help them explore options.  We do not decide or judge.  They have family friends and society doing enough.   I regret how judgmental I've been trying to push a client and may have created more resistance and fear. 
I agree with many of the earlier comments highlighting the drawbacks of 12-Step for many folks seeking recovery.  Although the program claims to be "spiritual" and "not religious," it's roots are in the Oxford Group, an early evangelical Protestant organization, and the 12 Steps (12, because there were 12 apostles) are taken directly from Oxford Group, which maintained that people were "powerless over sin."  Bill W. simply replaced "sin" with "alcohol" and kept the rest unchanged.
Having more than one drink a day for women or two drinks for men increases the risk of heart disease, high blood pressure, atrial fibrillation, and stroke.[29] Risk is greater in younger people due to binge drinking, which may result in violence or accidents.[29] About 3.3 million deaths (5.9% of all deaths) are believed to be due to alcohol each year.[11] Alcoholism reduces a person's life expectancy by around ten years[22] and alcohol use is the third leading cause of early death in the United States.[29] No professional medical association recommends that people who are nondrinkers should start drinking wine.[29][30] Long-term alcohol abuse can cause a number of physical symptoms, including cirrhosis of the liver, pancreatitis, epilepsy, polyneuropathy, alcoholic dementia, heart disease, nutritional deficiencies, peptic ulcers[31] and sexual dysfunction, and can eventually be fatal. Other physical effects include an increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease, malabsorption, alcoholic liver disease, and several cancers. Damage to the central nervous system and peripheral nervous system can occur from sustained alcohol consumption.[32][33] A wide range of immunologic defects can result and there may be a generalized skeletal fragility, in addition to a recognized tendency to accidental injury, resulting a propensity to bone fractures.[34]

Even if you do go to the trouble of backing up data, there’s plenty of potential for files to slip through the cracks. You may have neglected to include an important folder in the backup job, or your hard drive may fail the day before your weekly backup is due to be updated. This is where data recovery tools can save the day, and here we take a look at five of the very best free options that are available.


Jump up ^ Littrell, Jill (2014). Understanding and Treating Alcoholism Volume I: An Empirically Based Clinician's Handbook for the Treatment of Alcoholism: Volume Ii: Biological, Psychological, and Social Aspects of Alcohol Consumption and Abuse. Hoboken: Taylor and Francis. p. 55. ISBN 9781317783145. Archived from the original on 20 July 2017. The World Health Organization defines alcoholism as any drinking which results in problems
The User Interface of this free tool wouldn’t let you down either with a file-recovery wizard and an application manual mode available to your disposal which provides color coding (indicating the probability of the recovery of a file) along with the ability to preview files before undeleting them. Recuva’s data recovery solution is definitely a notch above all others and undoubtedly the most complete and reliable free data recovery software available today.
Added fat and scar tissue on the liver due to excessive alcohol consumption can lead to all sorts of problems, but most often either cirrhosis or alcohol-induced hepatitis. Liver failure among those who drink heavily for many years is likely. Pancreatitis, or the consistent inflammation of the pancreas, can also cause damage to the body, including high blood sugar leading to diabetes.
These are all very different drinking patterns, but they have one thing in common. People who drink like this have lost some modicum of control over their consumption. The beverages drive their behaviors. It can seem like a subtle distinction, but it’s an important one to understand, as people who don’t amend troublesome drinking behaviors can become people who have symptoms of alcoholism.
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Severe acute withdrawal symptoms such as delirium tremens and seizures rarely occur after 1-week post cessation of alcohol. The acute withdrawal phase can be defined as lasting between one and three weeks. In the period of 3–6 weeks following cessation increased anxiety, depression, as well as sleep disturbance, is common;[65] fatigue and tension can persist for up to 5 weeks as part of the post-acute withdrawal syndrome; about a quarter of alcoholics experience anxiety and depression for up to 2 years. These post-acute withdrawal symptoms have also been demonstrated in animal models of alcohol dependence and withdrawal.[66] A kindling effect also occurs in alcoholics whereby each subsequent withdrawal syndrome is more severe than the previous withdrawal episode; this is due to neuroadaptations which occur as a result of periods of abstinence followed by re-exposure to alcohol. Individuals who have had multiple withdrawal episodes are more likely to develop seizures and experience more severe anxiety during withdrawal from alcohol than alcohol-dependent individuals without a history of past alcohol withdrawal episodes. The kindling effect leads to persistent functional changes in brain neural circuits as well as to gene expression.[67] Kindling also results in the intensification of psychological symptoms of alcohol withdrawal.[65] There are decision tools and questionnaires which help guide physicians in evaluating alcohol withdrawal. For example, the CIWA-Ar objectifies alcohol withdrawal symptoms in order to guide therapy decisions which allows for an efficient interview while at the same time retaining clinical usefulness, validity, and reliability, ensuring proper care for withdrawal patients, who can be in danger of death.[68]
The personal nature of the behavioral issues that lead to seeking help in twelve-step fellowships results in a strong relationship between sponsee and sponsor. As the relationship is based on spiritual principles, it is unique and not generally characterized as "friendship". Fundamentally, the sponsor has the single purpose of helping the sponsee recover from the behavioral problem that brought the sufferer into twelve-step work, which reflexively helps the sponsor recover.[25]

One failing that bothered us in all these apps—including our top picks—is that they didn't even warn us that we couldn't recover files from an SSD. It's easy for an app to tell whether a drive uses spinning-platter or SSD technology, and easy to tell whether TRIM technology is active in a drive. All of the software we reviewed, both on the Mac and PC, misleadingly told us that they were able to recover deleted files from SSDs—and then disappointed us by providing corrupt and unusable files instead of the ones we wanted. We hope that the next generation of data recovery software is redesigned to make it clear that we can't hope for file recovery on SSDs unless the deleted files are safely in the Recycle Bin—where, of course, they're easy to find without using recovery software.


Treatment of alcoholism often is a combination of inpatient and outpatient therapy depending on the individual's alcohol history and physical condition. The person with alcoholism often resists the idea that he or she has an alcohol problem and needs to stop drinking. Treatment cannot be forced on adults unless it is a condition imposed by a court of law. However, if the person is a danger to him- or herself or to others, immediate hospitalization may be possible without the individual's consent.
A member who accepts a service position or an organizing role is a "trusted servant" with terms rotating and limited, typically lasting three months to two years and determined by group vote and the nature of the position. Each group is a self-governing entity with AA World Services acting only in an advisory capacity. AA is served entirely by alcoholics, except for seven "nonalcoholic friends of the fellowship" of the 21-member AA Board of Trustees.[25]
During Step 5, a trusted support person should be selected, after sins are confessed to the higher power, who can help individuals to move forward and leave the past behind them. Addiction can be isolating as individuals shrink into themselves, and Step 5 is often the first step toward opening up to others. It can be difficult to admit to oneself any wrongdoings and even harder to then share them with others. During Step 5, individuals are often humbled and then feel cleansed moving forward, leaving negativity in the past.
According to the National Survey on Drug Use and Health, approximately 15 million American adults misuse alcohol or are alcohol dependent. In the United States, nearly 20% of patients treated in general medical practices report drinking at levels considered "risky" or "hazardous." According to NIAAA, less than 10% of patients with alcohol use disorder receive treatment.
PaRC's team of physicians and specialists evaluate, treat, educate and guide the chronic pain sufferer through the process of pain and addiction recovery. Two primary goals of PaRC's Pain Recovery Program are pain relief to the highest degree possible and stopping or reversing the negative impact and downward course of a patient's pain condition, lifestyle, work, interpersonal relationships and overall wellbeing. 
Twelve-step programs approach alcoholism and drug addiction as diseases that can only be managed by surrendering one’s will to a higher power. In spite of their reliance on the disease model of addiction, 12-step groups offer rewarding experiences that reinforce healthy, sober behaviors. In this sense, the 12 steps reflect the principles of positive psychology, notes the Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment. Positive psychology is based on the belief that gratifying experiences will encourage the individual to repeat a healthy behavior, such as attending meetings or reading AA literature, rather than reverting to a self-destructive behavior, such as drinking or using drugs.
"Thirteenth-stepping" is a pejorative term for AA members approaching new members for dates. A study in the Journal of Addiction Nursing sampled 55 women in AA and found that 35% of these women had experienced a "pass" and 29% had felt seduced at least once in AA settings. This has also happened with new male members who received guidance from older female AA members, in pursuit of sexual company. The authors suggest that both men and women need to be prepared for this behavior or find Male only or female-only groups.[88] However, this is a small survey compared to the estimated 2 million members (2016) and many women have reported feeling safe in AA. AA's pamphlet on sponsorship suggests that men be sponsored by men and women be sponsored by women.[89]
But Twelve-Step Facilitation therapy is still a tried-and-true proven approach. It is far more than advising a patient to “go to AA” and providing them a list of meeting locations and times. In Twelve-Step Faciliation, the therapist actively probes and nudges, encouraging not only attendance, but participation, in meetings; it explains the potential benefits of working with a sponsor and promotes the individual developing a relationship with a sponsor; it explores problems or psychological resistances to attendance, participation, actual “working the steps,” and the development of a sponsor-sponsee relationship; and it opens the door to “AA-related activities” such as volunteer service to one’s AA “home group” or AA “clubhouse” and involvement with AA-related social events, retreats, and local and state conventions.
Sponsors and sponsees participate in activities that lead to spiritual growth. Experiences in the program are often shared by outgoing members with incoming members. This rotation of experience is often considered to have a great spiritual reward.[30] These may include practices such as literature discussion and study, meditation, and writing. Completing the program usually implies competency to guide newcomers which is often encouraged.[31] Sponsees typically do their Fifth Step, review their moral inventory written as part of the Fourth Step, with their sponsor. The Fifth Step, as well as the Ninth Step, have been compared to confession and penitence.[32] Michel Foucault, a French philosopher, noted such practices produce intrinsic modifications in the person—exonerating, redeeming and purifying them; relieves them of their burden of wrong, liberating them and promising salvation.[32][33]
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