Alcoholism often reduces a person's life expectancy by around ten years.[22] The most common cause of death in alcoholics is from cardiovascular complications.[155] There is a high rate of suicide in chronic alcoholics, which increases the longer a person drinks. Approximately 3–15 percent of alcoholics commit suicide,[156] and research has found that over 50 percent of all suicides are associated with alcohol or drug dependence. This is believed to be due to alcohol causing physiological distortion of brain chemistry, as well as social isolation. Suicide is also very common in adolescent alcohol abusers, with 25 percent of suicides in adolescents being related to alcohol abuse.[157] Among those with alcohol dependence after one year, some met the criteria for low-risk drinking, even though only 25.5 percent of the group received any treatment, with the breakdown as follows: 25 percent were found to be still dependent, 27.3 percent were in partial remission (some symptoms persist), 11.8 percent asymptomatic drinkers (consumption increases chances of relapse) and 35.9 percent were fully recovered—made up of 17.7 percent low-risk drinkers plus 18.2 percent abstainers.[158] In contrast, however, the results of a long-term (60-year) follow-up of two groups of alcoholic men indicated that "return to controlled drinking rarely persisted for much more than a decade without relapse or evolution into abstinence."[159] There was also "return-to-controlled drinking, as reported in short-term studies, is often a mirage."
Chronic pain conditions require a multifaceted approach to treatment. PaRC's Pain Recovery  Program addresses the bio-psycho-social factors that contribute to chronic pain. We teach patients physical, mental and behavioral techniques that assist them in living life fully and achieving pain relief and management without reliance on addictive medications.
Diagnosis is aided by administering specific psychological assessments that help to indicate what aspects of a person's life may be affected by alcohol use. Determining the exact quantity of alcohol that a person drinks is less important than determining how drinking affects relationships, jobs, educational goals, and family life. Because the metabolism (how the body breaks down and processes) of alcohol varies among individuals, the quantity of alcohol consumed is not part of the criteria list for diagnosing either alcohol dependence or alcohol abuse.
Other tests are sometimes used for the detection of alcohol dependence, such as the Alcohol Dependence Data Questionnaire, which is a more sensitive diagnostic test than the CAGE questionnaire. It helps distinguish a diagnosis of alcohol dependence from one of heavy alcohol use.[116] The Michigan Alcohol Screening Test (MAST) is a screening tool for alcoholism widely used by courts to determine the appropriate sentencing for people convicted of alcohol-related offenses,[117] driving under the influence being the most common. The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), a screening questionnaire developed by the World Health Organization, is unique in that it has been validated in six countries and is used internationally. Like the CAGE questionnaire, it uses a simple set of questions – a high score earning a deeper investigation.[118] The Paddington Alcohol Test (PAT) was designed to screen for alcohol-related problems amongst those attending Accident and Emergency departments. It concords well with the AUDIT questionnaire but is administered in a fifth of the time.[119] Certain blood tests may also indicate possible alcoholism.[3]

One failing that bothered us in all these apps—including our top picks—is that they didn't even warn us that we couldn't recover files from an SSD. It's easy for an app to tell whether a drive uses spinning-platter or SSD technology, and easy to tell whether TRIM technology is active in a drive. All of the software we reviewed, both on the Mac and PC, misleadingly told us that they were able to recover deleted files from SSDs—and then disappointed us by providing corrupt and unusable files instead of the ones we wanted. We hope that the next generation of data recovery software is redesigned to make it clear that we can't hope for file recovery on SSDs unless the deleted files are safely in the Recycle Bin—where, of course, they're easy to find without using recovery software.


Naltrexone is a competitive antagonist for opioid receptors, effectively blocking the effects of endorphins and opioids. Naltrexone is used to decrease cravings for alcohol and encourage abstinence. Alcohol causes the body to release endorphins, which in turn release dopamine and activate the reward pathways; hence in the body reduces the pleasurable effects from consuming alcohol.[136] Evidence supports a reduced risk of relapse among alcohol-dependent persons and a decrease in excessive drinking.[135] Nalmefene also appears effective and works in a similar manner.[135]
Mike, I applaud you for this excellent treatise supporting the relevance of 12-Step recovery in modern addiction treatment.  Upon careful study, the goal is to achieve "A A" = autonomy and agency.  That this method is unwaveringly spelled out, is freely and widely available, requires no Prior Auth or co-pay, has no drug-drug interactions or side effects and enjoys a success rate commensurate with all other offerings is compelling.  For some validated evidence of things that work in recovery (including 12-Step) I invite you to visit our (RRI) website.
The program is available for patients who are otherwise healthy; specifically, specifically, those who do not have acute or significant heart disease, insulin dependent diabetes that is well controlled with an A1C at or above 7, sleep apnea not controlled or a Body Mass Index (BMI) over 42, as individuals with these conditions are best suited recovering in a hospital setting.
The Big Book was originally written as a guide for people who couldn’t attend AA fellowship meetings, but it soon became a model for the program in general. It has since been adopted as a model for a wide range of addiction peer-support and self-help programs designed to help drive behavioral change. In addition to the original Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) group, various offshoots now exist, such as Narcotics Anonymous (NA), Heroin Anonymous (HA), and Gamblers Anonymous (GA).
I am surprised that along with the detailed description of the utility of CBT in aiding recovery from addictions that no mention was made of the SMART Recovery Self-Help Network. The SMART Recovery Program (Self-Management And Recovery Training) which is grounded in CBT along with several other evidence-based tools. There are about 1,500 free SMART Recovery meetings available in communities & prisons around the world. smartrecovery.org is an interactive website which receives about 120,000 unique visitors per month and has over 135,000 registrants. 30 online SMART Recovery meetings per week are available online. 160 SMART facilitators per month are being trained via an interactive online program; many are professionals. About 1/3 of regular SMART Recovery participants also attend 12-Step meetings, at least occasionally, There have been >25,000 SMART meetings in MA where 2/3 of participants are professionally referred and the majority of meetings occur in hospitals. SMART Recovery has no objection to appropriate, medically-prescribed pharmaceuticals being used in the course of recovery from an addiction.

Though it can feel as if you are hiding a unique or embarrassing problem, the fact is that families across the country are experiencing the exact same thing you are. You are not alone with the disease, and you will not be alone as you seek the treatment necessary to begin to heal and start a new life in recovery. Alcohol.org is available to provide education and support all along the way.
Jump up ^ Morse, RM; Flavin, DK (August 1992). "The definition of alcoholism. The Joint Committee of the National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence and the American Society of Addiction Medicine to Study the Definition and Criteria for the Diagnosis of Alcoholism". JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association. 268 (8): 1012–4. doi:10.1001/jama.1992.03490080086030. ISSN 0098-7484. PMID 1501306.
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Withdrawal symptoms can range from mild to life threatening. Mild withdrawal symptoms include nausea, achiness, diarrhea, difficulty sleeping, sweatiness, anxiety, and trembling. This phase usually lasts no more than three to five days. More severe effects of withdrawal can include hallucinations in which a patient sees, hears, or feels something that is not actually present, seizures, an unbearable craving for more alcohol, confusion, fever, fast heart rate (tachycardia), high blood pressure (hypertension), and delirium (a fluctuating level of consciousness). Patients at highest risk for the most severe symptoms of withdrawal are those with other medical problems, including malnutrition, liver disease, or Wernicke's syndrome. Severe withdrawal symptoms usually begin about three days after the individual's last drink, and may last a variable number of days.

Given the malnutrition that many alcoholics suffer from, gradual correction of that condition is also important, both to prevent or correct the consequences of malnutrition (like low thiamine level) and to prevent the potential results of correcting nutrition problems too rapidly. One example of the latter is that people with chronic alcohol-induced low sodium levels in the bloodstream (hyponatremia) are at risk for severe neurological problems due to a loss of the outer, insulating covering of nerve cells in parts of the brain (central pontine myelinolysis) if low sodium levels are corrected too rapidly.
United States courts have ruled that inmates, parolees, and probationers cannot be ordered to attend AA. Though AA itself was not deemed a religion, it was ruled that it contained enough religious components (variously described in Griffin v. Coughlin below as, inter alia, "religion", "religious activity", "religious exercise") to make coerced attendance at AA meetings a violation of the Establishment Clause of the First Amendment of the constitution.[82][83] In 2007, the Ninth Circuit of the U.S. Court of Appeals stated that a parolee who was ordered to attend AA had standing to sue his parole office.[84][85]
But Twelve-Step Facilitation therapy is still a tried-and-true proven approach. It is far more than advising a patient to “go to AA” and providing them a list of meeting locations and times. In Twelve-Step Faciliation, the therapist actively probes and nudges, encouraging not only attendance, but participation, in meetings; it explains the potential benefits of working with a sponsor and promotes the individual developing a relationship with a sponsor; it explores problems or psychological resistances to attendance, participation, actual “working the steps,” and the development of a sponsor-sponsee relationship; and it opens the door to “AA-related activities” such as volunteer service to one’s AA “home group” or AA “clubhouse” and involvement with AA-related social events, retreats, and local and state conventions.
Where data recovery software is most useful is when you mistakenly formatted a thumb drive or a media card without remembering to grab the files already stored there, or if you mistakenly deleted files from your phone. This is the kind of mishap that can happen to anyone. Advanced users often get overeager about emptying the Recycle Bin, and want to get back files they didn't intend to delete forever. If you're using a traditional spinning hard drive, the best recovery software can restore those lost files. A few advanced users—you know who you are—have even deleted whole disk partitions by mistake when performing housekeeping on their hard disks. Again, with a traditional spinning hard drive, recovery software can bring it back in one piece.

Treatments are varied because there are multiple perspectives of alcoholism. Those who approach alcoholism as a medical condition or disease recommend differing treatments from, for instance, those who approach the condition as one of social choice. Most treatments focus on helping people discontinue their alcohol intake, followed up with life training and/or social support to help them resist a return to alcohol use. Since alcoholism involves multiple factors which encourage a person to continue drinking, they must all be addressed to successfully prevent a relapse. An example of this kind of treatment is detoxification followed by a combination of supportive therapy, attendance at self-help groups, and ongoing development of coping mechanisms. The treatment community for alcoholism typically supports an abstinence-based zero tolerance approach; however, some prefer a harm-reduction approach.[125]
Thank you dr Miller, very important part of recovery of addiction and important tool for our patients that should not be "a dying art". I have heard international lecturer and professional in addiction treatment, state that "Minnesota Model" is one treatment that has been shown ineffective (evidence based medicine... Many correlate that with Twelve step facilitation. Can you help with references to support or counteract that?
Traditional addiction treatment in America is derived from multidisciplinary treatment of chronic mental disease and the peer-support program of Alcoholics Anonymous, founded in 1935 by two middle-aged men who leaned on each other for hope, and described in the eponymous book published in 1939. Its subtitle indicates it is a how-to description of the path of recovery. It describes twelve steps in the process of recovery outlined by the authors. One of the evidence-based practices of modern addiction treatment, as outlined by the federal Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration’s registry of Evidence Based Programs and Practices, is Twelve Step Facilitation Therapy.
AA sprang from The Oxford Group, a non-denominational movement modeled after first-century Christianity.[13] Some members founded the Group to help in maintaining sobriety. "Grouper" Ebby Thacher was Wilson's former drinking buddy who approached Wilson saying that he had "got religion", was sober, and that Wilson could do the same if he set aside objections to religion and instead formed a personal idea of God, "another power" or "higher power".[14][15]

Narcotics Anonymous (NA). Narcotics Anonymous is an organization that adapted the same principles as Alcoholics Anonymous. Just like AA, NA emphasizes a spiritual connection to a higher power. The program is targeted towards men and women for whom drugs have become a major problem. These people come together regularly in support group meetings and help one another to maintain abstinence as they recover from their addictions.
Dr.Miller, if it were that simple, we wouldn't be discussing the issue at all. I have experienced both sides of the fence so to speak. I've been the guy in the back of the room who couldn't put 24 hours of sobriety together, life in shambles, family gone, and without the ability to function in society.   On the other hand I have worked in the treatment field, worked the program in every aspect of my life, as well as sponsored countless people.  The sponsorship is where I have the "BEGINNING" of difficulty, not that it's all bad. Especially when it comes to forth step.  A person who has resentments should be made to see their part in their resentment. All to often though the addict is made to blame.  A sponsee of mine was raped in jail and he had put it on his forth step.  So he had sexual issues, self worth issues, ECT.  I deferred to my sponsor on how to deal with such a resentment. He and his sponsor both told me to tell the kid, yea, it was bad, but you put yourself In jail, so it your fault. I've taken enough psychology to know you never under any circumstances  tell a rape victim it's their fault that they were raped. I told him to defer to a mental health professional, and for a time he improved. Later after being forced back into AA by the legal system he was again told on a fourth step that it was his fault for being raped. But this crazy "tough love", "it's your fault"  "now learn some humility and fix it", kind of thinking permeates AA to it's core.  The kid did stay sober, his determination was so strong the police found him with both barrels of a shotgun in his mouth and the back of his head splattered against the wall. Next to him they found and unopened bottle of wiskey and a note saying "this is how bad I don't want to drink". You see, he had floundered in AA and so of course the finger was pointed  at him for failure, by his family, by the program, and most people he knew. This is just one of countless horror stories. If you look at the founder. I realize that most believe AA  was co founded by Dr. Robert Smith M.D.  In reality, Dr. Bob was the first person to have tried the program and had any success. Everyone Bill Wilson tried his program on previously failed miserably. But looking at the heart of the origins of the program, and I dont mean the Oxford groups of whom Bill Wilson would derive his 12 steps from their 6 step program, I mean at the thinking of Bill Wilson himself. He says in his biography that he had a literal disease that left him virtually powerless over every vice and compulsion he indulged in.  AND I don't say this to degrade In anyway the hardworking and caring people of AA. Heaven knows, the vast overwhelming majority of AA's have their hearts in the right place, but the whole thing is based on an excuse. The idea of having a disease took the heat off of Bill.  The program  slowly built up around that notion that there's a disease to blame. After 20 years of life experience, and a lot of academia,  I believe the problem lies in unintentional conditioning. Really a learning disorder to put it in other terms. Susceptible individuals, usually because of one form of trauma or another seek out relief. By repeated chemical administration the brain slowly starts to think that chemical is necessary for survival. Probably because the instinctual systems become involved. When a compulsion is more powerful than a individuals desire for oxygen, and food ECT.  Words are useless, consequences will have no effect. Mostly because a person can't directly access the sub conscience.  But you can unlearn something. Email me for the real solution
Non-12-step support groups provide a secular alternative to the 12-step programs and may be more comfortable for those not wanting to place such an emphasis on a higher power for recovery. Non-12-step groups sometimes involve fewer group sharing scenarios—which can provide some relief for those individuals who aren't as comfortable sharing sensitive personal information in group settings. Below are a few examples of non-12-step programs:

This is the rarest group, accounting for 9% of American alcoholics, and the most severe. Most people in this subtype are usually men, and are associated with a high rate of divorce, financial problems, clinical depression, and the use of other drugs. These are people whose lives have been all but completely taken over by booze. Alcoholism truly is a sad disease.


Alcoholics Anonymous became so well-known that Wilson and other early members of the group were invited to a dinner hosted by John D. Rockefeller, Jr., the patriarch of one of the most powerful families in American history. Despite Wilson’s requests, Rockefeller refused to finance AA, believing that the money would only corrupt the noble ambitions of the group. Instead, Rockefeller felt that the organization’s own characteristics – the personal testimonies, the word-of-mouth, and the anonymity – were key to its success and longevity.
The program offers a comprehensive array of clinical services for individuals seeking recovery from alcohol and other drug addiction. Our team is unique in that it brings together experts from the field of medicine, psychiatry and addiction, which gives us the ability to care for patients with both addiction and co-existing medical and/or psychiatric illnesses.
Many newcomers who attend 12-step meetings find personal validation in the stories of other addicts. Substance abusers who have been isolated by their disease have the opportunity to relieve their pain by sharing their experiences with others. Alcoholics who have lost their jobs, families, and dignity can recover their self-respect and restore broken relationships with the help of the fellowship and the 12 steps.
Keeping things nice and simple, EaseUS Data Recovery Wizard Free is the friendly, accessible face of recovering lost files. Fire up the program and you're presented with a screen asking which drive you would like to scan for recoverable data – you then just need to hit the Scan button. There are no options to configure, but if you know exactly where a file has gone missing from, you can specify a folder to scan to speed things up.
The long-term effects of alcohol use disorder can be devastating and even life-threatening. Chronic excessive alcohol consumption can negatively affect virtually every organ system. Specific examples of alcohol-use disorder effects on the body include everything from general effects like poor coordination, thiamine deficiency, and other forms of poor nutrition, cardiovascular effects like hypertension and irregular heartbeat, reproductive effects like impotence and irregular menses, as well as gastrointestinal problems like jaundice, cirrhosis of the liver, and pancreatitis. Alcohol-use disorder complications that involve the brain include, but are by no means limited to, strokes, confusion, and amnesia. Thiamine deficiency that is associated with alcohol use disorder can progress to the point that the sufferer develops vision problems, confusion, and trouble walking (Wernicke's encephalopathy), eventually followed by trouble caring for themselves and memory problems that the person tries to cover for by making things up/confabulating information (Korsakoff syndrome).

SMART Recovery: (Self Management for Addiction Recovery): SMART Recovery is a 4-point program based on cognitive behavioral therapy and seeks to empower the individual through education and practical techniques. It is present-focused and does not use the term “disease” when referring to addiction. Attendees may use medications, which are not encouraged in AA.
As long as the drive has not been fully erased, there really is no time limit. However, continuing to use the drive (such as adding or editing photos, music, documents, etc) that you are wanting to recover files from can overwrite deleted files making them less likely to be recoverable. Also, letting a drive sit without being used does eventually further the damage. As a result, the sooner you recover the lost files, the better your chance of recovering them.
There are a number of secular (non-religious) self-help organizations besides SMART recovery, like LifeRing Secular Recovery and Women for Sobriety.  I serve on the Board of Directors for LifeRing.  Women for Sobriety is a women's only group that keeps its meeting times and locations private to ensure the safety of its participants, some of whom are the victims of domestic violence and stalking.
Over time, the regular consumption of alcohol will alter brain chemicals, making the drinker crave alcohol not for a good time, but to avoid feeling poorly. Brain function becomes more and more impaired as your blood alcohol content increases. Each time you drink alcohol, several chemicals in the brain become imbalanced. Over time, the brain becomes used to this imbalance, and considers it the new balance, so to speak. This is a disease of the brain called alcoholism.
While 12-Step facilitation programs don’t necessarily follow the steps, they promote the use of a 12-Step methodology, in the hope that clients will move to a 12-Step program after rehab to help maintain sobriety. In addition, certain treatment centers base their model for service around some of the ideas promoted through the 12-Step program. These centers can offer research-based services and promote a more scientific understanding of addiction treatment, but they incorporate some of the spiritual, psychological, and practical practices that the 12-Step program promotes. This results in an encompassing model of care designed to support clients through rehab and to give tools that they can use after treatment to maintain their recovery for the long-term.
AA's program extends beyond abstaining from alcohol.[33] Its goal is to effect enough change in the alcoholic's thinking "to bring about recovery from alcoholism"[34] through "an entire psychic change," or spiritual awakening.[35] A spiritual awakening is meant to be achieved by taking the Twelve Steps,[36] and sobriety is furthered by volunteering for AA[37] and regular AA meeting attendance[38] or contact with AA members.[36] Members are encouraged to find an experienced fellow alcoholic, called a sponsor, to help them understand and follow the AA program. The sponsor should preferably have experience of all twelve of the steps, be the same sex as the sponsored person, and refrain from imposing personal views on the sponsored person.[37] Following the helper therapy principle, sponsors in AA may benefit from their relationship with their charges, as "helping behaviors" correlate with increased abstinence and lower probabilities of binge drinking.[39]

The primary purpose of our website is to help readers find information about the location, times, and addresses of meetings of Area 37 groups and districts so he or she can make direct, face-to-face contact with A.A. This website will not be used to establish or encourage email exchanges, chat meetings, or contacts that lead to similar online activities. All information is provided solely for the purpose of helping the alcoholic make direct, face-to-face contact with A.A.
LifeRing Secular Recovery: For people who would prefer a recovery program without the spiritual aspects of the AA and the 12-Step program, LifeRing is not based on any ideas of a higher power. Instead, they focus on the belief that each person has the power within them to control their alcoholism, having its member visualize themselves as two people: the Addict Self and the Sober Self, and work on weakening the former and strengthening the latter. LifeRing does this by connected Sober Selves through in-person and online group meetings to create a strong network of support without any kind of structured stages, steps, or sponsors. Instead, they emphasize that the best person to design an effective sobriety program is you since you will know what does and doesn’t work for you personally.

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Alcohol Use Disorder is a pattern of disordered drinking that can involve interference in daily tasks, withdrawal symptoms, discord in relationships, and risky decisions that place oneself or others in harm's way. More than 15 million American adults struggle with this condition, according to the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Like all addictions, alcohol use disorder is inextricably linked to a complex matrix of biological, social, and psychological factors. Research highlights a genetic component to the disease, as about half of one's predisposition to alcoholism can be attributed to his or her genetic makeup. As a psychological malady, people may turn to alcohol to cope with trauma or other co-occurring mental disorders. Socially, alcoholism may be tied to familial dysfunction or a culture embedded with binge drinking. The brain's reward pathways also play an essential role: Alcohol consumption is associated with increased dopamine activity, which corresponds with pleasure, craving, and habit formation.
Alcoholism often reduces a person's life expectancy by around ten years.[22] The most common cause of death in alcoholics is from cardiovascular complications.[155] There is a high rate of suicide in chronic alcoholics, which increases the longer a person drinks. Approximately 3–15 percent of alcoholics commit suicide,[156] and research has found that over 50 percent of all suicides are associated with alcohol or drug dependence. This is believed to be due to alcohol causing physiological distortion of brain chemistry, as well as social isolation. Suicide is also very common in adolescent alcohol abusers, with 25 percent of suicides in adolescents being related to alcohol abuse.[157] Among those with alcohol dependence after one year, some met the criteria for low-risk drinking, even though only 25.5 percent of the group received any treatment, with the breakdown as follows: 25 percent were found to be still dependent, 27.3 percent were in partial remission (some symptoms persist), 11.8 percent asymptomatic drinkers (consumption increases chances of relapse) and 35.9 percent were fully recovered—made up of 17.7 percent low-risk drinkers plus 18.2 percent abstainers.[158] In contrast, however, the results of a long-term (60-year) follow-up of two groups of alcoholic men indicated that "return to controlled drinking rarely persisted for much more than a decade without relapse or evolution into abstinence."[159] There was also "return-to-controlled drinking, as reported in short-term studies, is often a mirage."
Alcohol biomarkers are physiologic indicators of alcohol exposure or ingestion and may reflect the presence of an alcohol use disorder. These biomarkers are not meant to be a substitute for a comprehensive history and physical examination. Indirect alcohol biomarkers, which suggest heavy alcohol use by detecting the toxic effects of alcohol, include the following [4] :

One review of AA warned of detrimental iatrogenic effects of twelve-step philosophy and concluded that AA uses many methods that are also used by cults.[93] A subsequent study concluded, however, that AA's program bore little resemblance to religious cults because the techniques used appeared beneficial.[94] Another study found that the AA program's focus on admission of having a problem increases deviant stigma and strips members of their previous cultural identity, replacing it with the deviant identity.[95] A survey of group members, however, found they had a bicultural identity and saw AA's program as a complement to their other national, ethnic, and religious cultures.[96]
In figuring out the price of rehabilitation in Cheyenne, WY, you first have to look at the amenities the center delivers and its locale in comparison to your own preferences. You'll find quite a wide range in cost for rehabilitation facilities. Many take private insurance, so either check with your provider to see if the costs are partially covered through your PPO or HMO, or dial our helpline, toll-free for a discreet insurance check.

Signs of a drinking problem include behaviors like drinking for the purpose of getting drunk, drinking alone or keeping it secret, drinking to escape problems, hiding alcohol in odd places, getting irritated when you are unable to obtain alcohol to drink, and having problems at work, school, home, or legally as a result of your drinking. Other warning signs of alcohol use disorder include losing interest in activities you used to enjoy, having blackouts because of heavy drinking, and getting annoyed when loved ones say you may have a drinking problem. Behaviors that may indicate that a person is suffering from alcoholism include being able to drink more and more alcohol, trouble stopping once you start drinking, powerful urges to drink, and having withdrawal symptoms like nervousness, nausea, shaking, or having cold sweats, and even hallucinations when you don't have a drink.
United States courts have ruled that inmates, parolees, and probationers cannot be ordered to attend AA. Though AA itself was not deemed a religion, it was ruled that it contained enough religious components (variously described in Griffin v. Coughlin below as, inter alia, "religion", "religious activity", "religious exercise") to make coerced attendance at AA meetings a violation of the Establishment Clause of the First Amendment of the constitution.[82][83] In 2007, the Ninth Circuit of the U.S. Court of Appeals stated that a parolee who was ordered to attend AA had standing to sue his parole office.[84][85]
Alcohol detoxification or 'detox' for alcoholics is an abrupt stop of alcohol drinking coupled with the substitution of drugs, such as benzodiazepines, that have similar effects to prevent alcohol withdrawal. Individuals who are only at risk of mild to moderate withdrawal symptoms can be detoxified as outpatients. Individuals at risk of a severe withdrawal syndrome as well as those who have significant or acute comorbid conditions are generally treated as inpatients. Detoxification does not actually treat alcoholism, and it is necessary to follow up detoxification with an appropriate treatment program for alcohol dependence or abuse to reduce the risk of relapse.[7] Some symptoms of alcohol withdrawal such as depressed mood and anxiety typically take weeks or months to abate while other symptoms persist longer due to persisting neuroadaptations.[65] Alcoholism has serious adverse effects on brain function; on average it takes one year of abstinence to recover from the cognitive deficits incurred by chronic alcohol abuse.[126]
Alcoholism is a chronic, progressive behavioral disorder characterized by a strong urge to consume ethanol and an inability to limit the amount of drinking despite adverse consequences, including social or occupational impairment and deterioration of physical health. The disorder includes both physical dependence (withdrawal symptoms such as nausea, sweating, tremors, and delirium resulting from abstinence) and tolerance (the need to increase alcohol intake to achieve the desired effect). Excessive drinking may occur daily or during binges separated by intervals of sobriety lasting from days to months. About 30% of U.S. adults drink to excess at least occasionally, and 3-5% of women and 10% of men have chronic problems of excessive drinking. In approximately 40% of those who habitually abuse alcohol, a pattern of inappropriate drinking is evident before age 20. Alcoholism is frequently accompanied by addiction to nicotine and other drugs, anxiety, depression, and antisocial personality. It tends to run in families, but personal history and environmental factors are apparently at least as important as genetic predisposition. Behavioral traits that are typical of alcoholism include solitary drinking, morning drinking, lying about the extent of one's drinking, and maintenance of a secret supply of liquor. Alcoholism costs the U.S. approximately $200 billion yearly. Chronic alcoholism decreases life expectancy by about 15 years. It is associated with an increased incidence of cardiac arrhythmia, hypertension, stroke, acute hepatitis, cirrhosis, gastritis, pancreatitis, syncope, amnesia and personality change. Because ethanol is a rich source of nonnutritive calories, heavy drinking often leads to malnutrition and vitamin deficiency. Degenerative central nervous system disorders associated with alcoholism include Wernicke encephalopathy (due to thiamine deficiency) and Korsakoff psychosis. Alcoholics are more likely than nonalcoholics to be involved in automobile accidents (more than 25% of all traffic deaths involve alcohol) and to commit violent crimes, including spousal and child abuse and homicide. A child born to an alcoholic mother may suffer the stigmata of fetal alcohol syndrome, characterized by low birth weight, facial dysmorphism, cardiac anomalies, and mental retardation. The treatment of alcoholism requires intensive counseling of patient and family. Cognitive-behavioral therapy, motivational enhancement therapy, group therapy, and support groups are all of proven value. Administration of benzodiazepines during withdrawal and use of topiramate or naltrexone to maintain abstinence are often effective. Disulfiram taken regularly can lower the risk of relapse by inducing severe malaise and nausea if alcohol is consumed. Detoxification programs for the management of acute alcoholic intoxication include withdrawal of all alcohol consumption and provision of nutritional, pharmacologic, and psychological support.
Often, family members and close friends feel obligated to cover for the person with the drinking problem. So they take on the burden of cleaning up your messes, lying for you, or working more to make ends meet. Pretending that nothing is wrong and hiding away all of their fears and resentments can take an enormous toll. Children are especially sensitive and can suffer long-lasting emotional trauma when a parent or caretaker is an alcoholic or heavy drinker.

While Wilson and Smith credited their sobriety to working with alcoholics under the auspices of the Oxford Group, a Group associate pastor sermonized against Wilson and his alcoholic Groupers for forming a "secret, ashamed sub-group" engaged in "divergent works".[19] By 1937, Wilson separated from the Oxford Group. AA Historian Ernest Kurtz described the split:[19]


There are three oral medications that have been FDA-approved to help people remain sober: disulfiram, naltrexone, and acamprosate. They are prescribed for those who have indicated their intention to abstain from alcohol but require some reinforcement. Disulfiram causes unpleasant symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, and flushing with any amount of drinking. Naltrexone limits the cravings a person may get from drinking but can cause severe withdrawal symptoms in people who are also dependent on opiates. Acamprosate helps reduce the craving for alcohol. An injectable, long-acting form of naltrexone is also available. All of these medications are meant to be used in combination with counseling.
Experience Recovery withdrawal management services are provided in a residential setting allowing clients to recover in a peaceful, home-like atmosphere. A wide range of withdrawal management services are organized within a comprehensive therapeutic environment that includes diagnostic determination, individual withdrawal management plans, psychiatric consultations if needed, medication education, individual counseling, individualized treatment planning, client advocacy, referral to community providers and discharge planning. Services are provided by licensed/certified clinicians and medical professionals. For more information Please Call (888) 988-3971.
The first female member, Florence Rankin, joined AA in March 1937,[6][7] and the first non-Protestant member, a Roman Catholic, joined in 1939.[8] The first Black AA group was established in 1945 in Washington DC by Jim S., an African-American physician from Virginia.[9][10] AA membership has since spread internationally "across diverse cultures holding different beliefs and values", including geopolitical areas resistant to grassroots movements.[11] Close to 2 million people worldwide are members of AA as of 2016.[12]
Although all forms of problem drinking are getting worse in the US, not everyone who drinks too much meets the criteria for AUD. The CDC found, in 2014, that 90 percent of those who drink too much alcohol, even frequently, are not physically dependent on the substance to feel normal. Although one in three adults drink to excess, meeting the criteria for heavy or binge drinking, nine out of 10 do not meet the criteria for AUD from the DSM-5.

There are a few factors that play into how long a file recovery takes. The larger the size of the drive that is being scanned is, the longer it will take. Smaller drives (under 500Gb) may take anywhere from 30 minutes to a few hours to scan, larger drives (over 500Gb) may take multiple hours and even a day or two for Tb size drives. If a drive is damaged or corrupted, it will also add time to the overall recovery process. If the scan is progressing, do not stop the scan because you think it is taking too long for larger drives.
Heart. Small amounts of alcohol cause a drop in blood pressure, but with increased consumption, alcohol raises blood pressure into a dangerous range (hypertension). High levels of fats circulating in the bloodstream increase the risk of heart disease. Heavy drinking results in an increase in heart size, weakening of the heart muscle, abnormal heart rhythms, a risk of blood clots forming within the chambers of the heart, and a greatly increased risk of stroke due to a blood clot entering the circulatory system and blocking a brain blood vessel.
Alcoholics Anonymous is a fellowship of men and women who share their experience, strength and hope with each other that they may solve their common problem and help others to recover from alcoholism. The only requirement for membership is a desire to stop drinking. There are no dues or fees for AA membership; we are self-supporting through our own contributions. AA is not allied with any sect, denomination, organization or institution; does not wish to engage in any controversy, neither endorses nor opposes any causes. Our primary purpose is to stay sober and help other alcoholics to achieve sobriety.
AA says it is "not organized in the formal or political sense",[25] and Bill Wilson called it a "benign anarchy".[26] In Ireland, Shane Butler said that AA “looks like it couldn’t survive as there’s no leadership or top-level telling local cumanns what to do, but it has worked and proved itself extremely robust.” Butler explained that "AA’s 'inverted pyramid' style of governance has helped it to avoid many of the pitfalls that political and religious institutions have encountered since it was established here in 1946."[27]

Treating underlying problems: There may be problems with self-esteem, stress, anxiety, depression, or other aspects of mental health. It is important to treat these problems, too, as they can increase the risks posed by alcohol. Common alcohol-related issues, such as hypertension, liver diseases, and possibly heart diseases, will need to be treated too.
In the United States and Canada, AA meetings are held in hundreds of correctional facilities. The AA General Service Office has published a workbook with detailed recommendations for methods of approaching correctional-facility officials with the intent of developing an in-prison AA program.[79] In addition, AA publishes a variety of pamphlets specifically for the incarcerated alcoholic.[80] Additionally, the AA General Service Office provides a pamphlet with guidelines for members working with incarcerated alcoholics.[81]
Created by Christophe Grenier, PhotoRec is a free, open source file recovery program that works amazingly well on almost every operating system. PhotoRec isn't just a photo recovery tool (don't be fooled by its name). You can use this powerful software to recover nearly 500 different file formats from hard disks or removable media. Here's a tutorial on how to use PhotoRec step by step.

Alcohol affects virtually every organ system in the body and, in high doses, can cause coma and death. It affects several neurotransmitter systems in the brain, including opiates, GABA, glutamate, serotonin, and dopamine. Increased opiate levels help explain the euphoric effect of alcohol, while its effects on GABA cause anxiolytic and sedative effects.


Many AA meetings take place in treatment facilities. Carrying the message of AA into hospitals was how the co-founders of AA first remained sober. They discovered great value of working with alcoholics who are still suffering, and that even if the alcoholic they were working with did not stay sober, they did.[74][75][76] Bill Wilson wrote, "Practical experience shows that nothing will so much insure immunity from drinking as intensive work with other alcoholics".[77] Bill Wilson visited Towns Hospital in New York City in an attempt to help the alcoholics who were patients there in 1934. At St. Thomas Hospital in Akron, Ohio, Smith worked with still more alcoholics. In 1939, a New York mental institution, Rockland State Hospital, was one of the first institutions to allow AA hospital groups. Service to corrections and treatment facilities used to be combined until the General Service Conference, in 1977, voted to dissolve its Institutions Committee and form two separate committees, one for treatment facilities, and one for correctional facilities.[78]
No laboratory tests exist that can screen for alcoholism with a high level of accuracy. Most alcoholism is diagnosed through patient and family history. However, alcoholism can be difficult to diagnose until late-stage physical symptoms become apparent because alcohol-dependent people often lie or about underestimate their alcohol use. In addition, many physicians do not routinely screen their patients using standardized questionnaires that may reveal alcohol problems.
We offer flexible programming and a curriculum focused on fully integrated behavioral and mental health that also treats substance use. Through our program, your child will develop new coping skills and learn to address triggers and stressors as they continue their normal routine at home and school. Every aspect of your child’s treatment is designed to meet their specific needs and all substance abuse treatment is individualized to meet the needs of each patient.
Asking Question About 12-Step: This introduces the steps to patients and allows them to voice any questions and concerns . For instance, 12-Step encourages reliance on a spiritual foundation. But many groups give individuals the freedom to choose their own version of a “Higher Power.” This choice often helps patients let go of any religious resentments or preconceived prejudices toward spiritual practices.
Alcoholism often reduces a person's life expectancy by around ten years.[22] The most common cause of death in alcoholics is from cardiovascular complications.[155] There is a high rate of suicide in chronic alcoholics, which increases the longer a person drinks. Approximately 3–15 percent of alcoholics commit suicide,[156] and research has found that over 50 percent of all suicides are associated with alcohol or drug dependence. This is believed to be due to alcohol causing physiological distortion of brain chemistry, as well as social isolation. Suicide is also very common in adolescent alcohol abusers, with 25 percent of suicides in adolescents being related to alcohol abuse.[157] Among those with alcohol dependence after one year, some met the criteria for low-risk drinking, even though only 25.5 percent of the group received any treatment, with the breakdown as follows: 25 percent were found to be still dependent, 27.3 percent were in partial remission (some symptoms persist), 11.8 percent asymptomatic drinkers (consumption increases chances of relapse) and 35.9 percent were fully recovered—made up of 17.7 percent low-risk drinkers plus 18.2 percent abstainers.[158] In contrast, however, the results of a long-term (60-year) follow-up of two groups of alcoholic men indicated that "return to controlled drinking rarely persisted for much more than a decade without relapse or evolution into abstinence."[159] There was also "return-to-controlled drinking, as reported in short-term studies, is often a mirage."

Alcoholics Anonymous is a fellowship of men and women who share their experience, strength and hope with each other that they may solve their common problem and help others to recover from alcoholism. The only requirement for membership is a desire to stop drinking. There are no dues or fees for AA membership; we are self-supporting through our own contributions. AA is not allied with any sect, denomination, politics, organization or institution; does not wish to engage in any controversy, neither endorses nor opposes any causes. Our primary purpose is to stay sober and help other alcoholics to achieve sobriety.

As the name indicates, FreeUndelete is freeware tool that undeletes files from any NTFS- and FAT-based volume. FreeUndelete runs on Windows 10, 8, 7, Vista, and XP. During my test, I found the program intuitive, and the process of data scanning is pretty fast. However, what frustrated me was that the found files and folders are not well-organized, making it hard to actually select and recover those you want to recover.
People who drink too much are at an increased risk of ulcers, digestive problems, low hormone levels, and several cancers, including esophageal, stomach, colon, liver, mouth, and breast cancers. People who drink too much may induce a mood disorder, like anxiety or depression, or they may trigger a seizure disorder due to changes to the GABA system in the brain.
Alcoholics Anonymous World Services, Inc. has not approved, endorsed, or reviewed this website, nor is it affiliated with it, and the ability to link to A.A.W.S.' site does not imply otherwise. No copyrighted material shall be purposefully posted herein without the express permission of those individuals or institutions possessing ownership of said copyrights. Alcoholics Anonymous®, AA®, and The Big Book® are registered trademarks of Alcoholics Anonymous World Services Inc. The Grapevine®, and AA Grapevine® are registered trademarks of The AA Grapevine, Inc.

Support groups provide people with understanding peers and ongoing support, in church basements, community centers, and public facilities scattered all across the country. Here, people can come together to discuss addiction’s difficulties, and they can meet with other addicted people to gain support and insight. Alumni groups are similar, in that they link peers together to discuss addiction, but these groups contain people who all worked within the same facility for help.
I am surprised that along with the detailed description of the utility of CBT in aiding recovery from addictions that no mention was made of the SMART Recovery Self-Help Network. The SMART Recovery Program (Self-Management And Recovery Training) which is grounded in CBT along with several other evidence-based tools. There are about 1,500 free SMART Recovery meetings available in communities & prisons around the world. smartrecovery.org is an interactive website which receives about 120,000 unique visitors per month and has over 135,000 registrants. 30 online SMART Recovery meetings per week are available online. 160 SMART facilitators per month are being trained via an interactive online program; many are professionals. About 1/3 of regular SMART Recovery participants also attend 12-Step meetings, at least occasionally, There have been >25,000 SMART meetings in MA where 2/3 of participants are professionally referred and the majority of meetings occur in hospitals. SMART Recovery has no objection to appropriate, medically-prescribed pharmaceuticals being used in the course of recovery from an addiction.
Alcoholics Anonymous publishes several books, reports, pamphlets, and other media, including a periodical known as the AA Grapevine.[97] Two books are used primarily: Alcoholics Anonymous (the "Big Book") and Twelve Steps and Twelve Traditions, the latter explaining AA's fundamental principles in depth. The full text of each of these two books is available on the AA website at no charge.

As is true with virtually any mental health diagnosis, there is no one test that definitively indicates that someone has an alcohol-use disorder. Screening tools, including online or other tests may help identify individuals who are at risk for having a drinking problem. Therefore, health care professionals diagnose alcohol abuse or dependence by gathering comprehensive medical, family, and mental health information. The practitioner will also either perform a physical examination or request that the individual's primary care doctor perform one. The medical examination will usually include lab tests to evaluate the person's general health and to explore whether or not the individual has a medical condition that might have mental health symptoms.
At this point, a data recovery software comes in handy. You can choose free and paid solutions as per your need. To answer your query and help you make an informed decision while undeleting your files, we have compiled a list of best free data recovery software considering factors such as whether the software can recover RAW, Unallocated, Corrupt or Formatted Hard Disk; its ability to recover from different file systems such as FAT, FAT32, HFS, NTFS etc.; the array of devices supported; time taken for file recovery and user-friendliness to name a few. Let’s take a look at some of the best data recovery software you can use to recover lost data.

I am appalled that a book written by two extremely disturbed privileged white males who lived in 1930s Jim Crow era America is still the "treatment " standard for addiction. AA has been ruled a religious organization by several federal circuit courts, and it is impossible to work the program without a belief in a God who magically answers prayers for the addict who prays hard enough. It is not possible to turn one's will and life over to the care of Nature, or a Doorknob, or the Group of Drunks. One is guided through the steps by someone who is only qualified by the amount of sober time they claim to have. 12 step groups are especially dangerous for survivors of rape, abuse, and other trauma when they are tasked to examine "their part" in the crimes committed against them, not to mention having to defend themselves against the unethical yet joked about 13th Step.
Created by Christophe Grenier, PhotoRec is a free, open source file recovery program that works amazingly well on almost every operating system. PhotoRec isn't just a photo recovery tool (don't be fooled by its name). You can use this powerful software to recover nearly 500 different file formats from hard disks or removable media. Here's a tutorial on how to use PhotoRec step by step.
Substance abuse A condition characterized by a pathologic pattern of alcohol use causing a serious impairment in social or occupational functioning; also defined as a '…primary, chronic, disease with genetic, psychosocial, and environmental factors influencing its development and manifestations. The disease is often progressive and fatal. It is characterized by … distortions in thinking, most notably denial'; alcoholism is characterized by the regular intake of ≥ 75 g/day of alcohol Chronic effects Co-morbidity due to portal HTN, hepatic failure, hyperestrogenemia, infections–especially pneumonia, which may be due to alcohol-induced suppression of various immune defenses, psychosocial disruption, transient hyperparathyroidism with ↓ Ca2+, ↓ Mg2+, osteoporosis. See Blood alcohol levels, Standard drink.
The path to getting sober and drug-free is never exactly the same for any two people. However, anyone looking to find out more about rehab and recovery - either for themselves or their loved ones - will recognize some common steps, particularly when it comes to inpatient residential treatment programs. These steps are usually similar whether you’re looking for private alcoholism treatment or a drug addiction recovery center.
If you are still having issues with activation after trying the above mentioned items, please click on the “Gear” icon located on the lower left of the SRS window when it first opens. Next, click on “About” and then click on the check box to “Enable Log For Debugging”. This will turn on the logging feature for Customer Support to be able to further help you solve your issue. Once you have enabled logging, try to activate your license again, then call Customer Support and they will instruct you how to send the log files to them.
We have never called alcoholism a disease because, technically speaking, it is not a disease entity. For example, there is no such thing as heart disease. Instead there are many separate heart ailments, or combinations of them. It is something like that with alcoholism. We did not wish to get in wrong with the medical profession by pronouncing alcoholism a disease entity. We always called it an illness, or a malady—a far safer term for us to use.[96]
In the United States and Canada, AA meetings are held in hundreds of correctional facilities. The AA General Service Office has published a workbook with detailed recommendations for methods of approaching correctional-facility officials with the intent of developing an in-prison AA program.[79] In addition, AA publishes a variety of pamphlets specifically for the incarcerated alcoholic.[80] Additionally, the AA General Service Office provides a pamphlet with guidelines for members working with incarcerated alcoholics.[81]
Wilson took this to heart, coming up with additional points to safeguard the integrity and future of his group. To that effect, he wrote that every individual AA group should decline outside contributions and ought to be able to fully support itself. Alcoholics Anonymous was never to be a professional organization; “the only requirement for AA membership,” he wrote, “is a desire to stop drinking.” Above all, groups had to prize anonymity; Wilson wrote that it is “the spiritual foundation of all our traditions,” and that the sacrifice of identity would help members “place principles before personalities.”
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