The Serenity Prayer is learned, which is meant to be used whenever individuals need a reminder in their lives. The Serenity Prayer is as follows: “God grant me the serenity to accept the things I cannot change; courage to change the things I can; and wisdom to know the difference.”  This prayer is considered a cornerstone of many 12-Step programs as it embodies the idea that individuals need to accept the control that alcohol and drugs have over them, gain strength to work at remaining sober, and know when things are changeable and when they are not. Step 3 asks individuals to be willing to let God, in whatever form that is for each person, fully into their lives.

Another variation comes from the fact that some people are uncomfortable with the specific, religious aspects of the 12-Step program. As stated above, and as evident by the steps themselves, the 12-Step model originated from a Christian point of view. Those who are not Christian have modified the steps to refer to their specific religious or spiritual practice as a way to connect more with the structure of the 12-Step program. In addition, a number of non-religious 12-Step groups have modified the steps to fit a secular model that can help those who are agnostic or atheist practice the program without feeling forced to adhere to a religion they don’t believe in.

Data Erasure ❓Seagate File Recovery Software for Technician includes the data erase feature. This functionality enables best practices in data recovery when a failed storage device needs to be disposed or repurposed. The only way to permanently erase data without causing severe physical damage to a drive is to use a data erase tool such as the one available in the software suite. More details in the FAQ below. No Yes
Alcoholism, also known as alcohol use disorder (AUD), is a broad term for any drinking of alcohol that results in mental or physical health problems.[12] The disorder was previously divided into two types: alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence.[1][13] In a medical context, alcoholism is said to exist when two or more of the following conditions are present: a person drinks large amounts over a long time period, has difficulty cutting down, acquiring and drinking alcohol takes up a great deal of time, alcohol is strongly desired, usage results in not fulfilling responsibilities, usage results in social problems, usage results in health problems, usage results in risky situations, withdrawal occurs when stopping, and alcohol tolerance has occurred with use.[1] Risky situations include drinking and driving or having unsafe sex, among other things.[1] Alcohol use can affect all parts of the body, but it particularly affects the brain, heart, liver, pancreas and immune system.[3][4] This can result in mental illness, Wernicke–Korsakoff syndrome, irregular heartbeat, liver cirrhosis and increased cancer risk, among other diseases.[3][4] Drinking during pregnancy can cause damage to the baby resulting in fetal alcohol spectrum disorders.[2] Women are generally more sensitive than men to the harmful physical and mental effects of alcohol.[9]
As the name indicates, FreeUndelete is freeware tool that undeletes files from any NTFS- and FAT-based volume. FreeUndelete runs on Windows 10, 8, 7, Vista, and XP. During my test, I found the program intuitive, and the process of data scanning is pretty fast. However, what frustrated me was that the found files and folders are not well-organized, making it hard to actually select and recover those you want to recover.
Herbal treatments include milk thistle (Silybum marianum), which is thought to protect the liver against damage. Other herbs are thought to be helpful for the patient suffering through withdrawal. Some of these include lavender (Lavandula officinalis), skullcap (Scutellaria lateriflora), chamomile (Matricaria recutita), peppermint (Mentha piperita) yarrow (Achillea millefolium), and valerian (Valeriana officinalis).
If you are still having issues with activation after trying the above mentioned items, please click on the “Gear” icon located on the lower left of the SRS window when it first opens. Next, click on “About” and then click on the check box to “Enable Log For Debugging”. This will turn on the logging feature for Customer Support to be able to further help you solve your issue. Once you have enabled logging, try to activate your license again, then call Customer Support and they will instruct you how to send the log files to them.

To share their method, Wilson and other members wrote the initially-titled book, Alcoholics Anonymous: The Story of How More Than One Hundred Men Have Recovered from Alcoholism,[21] from which AA drew its name. Informally known as "The Big Book" (with its first 164 pages virtually unchanged since the 1939 edition), it suggests a twelve-step program in which members admit that they are powerless over alcohol and need help from a "higher power". They seek guidance and strength through prayer and meditation from God or a Higher Power of their own understanding; take a moral inventory with care to include resentments; list and become ready to remove character defects; list and make amends to those harmed; continue to take a moral inventory, pray, meditate, and try to help other alcoholics recover. The second half of the book, "Personal Stories" (subject to additions, removal and retitling in subsequent editions), is made of AA members' redemptive autobiographical sketches. [22]


Steps one through three deal with the individual’s acceptance of their inability to control their addiction alone and the need of support to remain abstinent. Steps four through nine teach the individual to take responsibility for their own actions and characteristics in order to create change in their life. Steps four, six and eight require self-reflection while steps five, seven and nine are the application of those reflections. The focus in steps 10 through 12 is on maintaining recovery. Each step builds upon the previous step in a progressive course of action.

Copyright © 2018 by Alcoholics Anonymous World Services, Inc. All rights reserved. This is the official Website of the General Service Office (G.S.O.) of Alcoholics Anonymous. Videos or graphic images may not be downloaded, copied or duplicated without the express written permission of Alcoholics Anonymous World Services, Inc. The “Blue People” graphic is a trademark of Alcoholics Anonymous World Services, Inc. All rights reserved.
interventions Extreme caution should be used in administering drugs to alcoholic patients because of the possibility of additive central nervous system depression and toxicity caused by inability of the liver to metabolize the drugs. Treatment consists of psychotherapy (especially group therapy by organizations such as Alcoholics Anonymous), or administration of drugs such as disulfiram that cause an aversion to alcohol. See also acute alcoholism, chronic alcoholism.
One review warned of detrimental iatrogenic effects of twelve-step philosophy and labeled the organizations as cults,[41] while another review asserts that these programs bore little semblance to religious cults and that the techniques used appeared beneficial to some.[42] Another study found that a twelve-step program's focus on self-admission of having a problem increases deviant stigma and strips members of their previous cultural identity, replacing it with the deviant identity.[43] Another study asserts that the prior cultural identity may not be replaced entirely, but rather members found adapted a bicultural identity.[44]
alcohol dependence = alcohol abuse combined with tolerance, withdrawal, and an uncontrollable drive to drink.[99] The term "alcoholism" was split into "alcohol abuse" and "alcohol dependence" in 1980's DSM-III, and in 1987's DSM-III-R behavioral symptoms were moved from "abuse" to "dependence".[100] It has been suggested that DSM-V merge alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence into a single new entry,[101] named "alcohol-use disorder".[102]
Alcoholism formerly called alcohol dependence or alcohol addiction, is the more severe end of the alcohol use disorder spectrum. It is a destructive pattern of alcohol use that includes tolerance to or withdrawal from the substance, using more alcohol or using it for longer than planned, and trouble reducing its use or inability to use it in moderation. Other potential symptoms include spending an inordinate amount of time getting, using, or recovering from the use of alcohol, compromised functioning, and/or continuing to use alcohol despite an awareness of the detrimental effects it is having on one's life.

To be diagnosed with AUD, individuals must meet certain criteria outlined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM). Under DSM–5, the current version of the DSM, anyone meeting any two of the 11 criteria during the same 12-month period receives a diagnosis of AUD. The severity of AUD—mild, moderate, or severe—is based on the number of criteria met.


Risk factors for developing problems with alcohol arise from many interconnected factors, including your genetics, how you were raised, your social environment, and your emotional health. Some racial groups, such as American Indians and Native Alaskans, are more at risk than others of developing drinking problems or alcohol addiction. People who have a family history of alcoholism or who associate closely with heavy drinkers are more likely to develop drinking problems. Finally, those who suffer from a mental health problem such as anxiety, depression, or bipolar disorder are also particularly at risk, because alcohol is often used to self-medicate.

The support of a strong social network. In that same vein, since AA has been around for so long and is so widely instituted, its networks of support are both widespread and firmly rooted. Combined with that is the emphasis the 12-Step program places on having a sponsor to provide encouragement and motivation as well as regularly attending group meetings and finding strength through your peers.


The primary purpose of our website is to help readers find information about the location, times, and addresses of meetings of Area 37 groups and districts so he or she can make direct, face-to-face contact with A.A. This website will not be used to establish or encourage email exchanges, chat meetings, or contacts that lead to similar online activities. All information is provided solely for the purpose of helping the alcoholic make direct, face-to-face contact with A.A.
NIAAA says a relapse typically follows a predictable path. The person in recovery is placed in a high-risk situation, and the person isn’t able to handle that situation effectively. That lack of effectiveness can prompt the person to feel somehow vulnerable or weak, and it can lead to a craving for alcohol. After a weak moment, people just begin to attribute life’s good things to alcohol. They then have a lapse and drink just a bit. In time, they start to drink more and more.

Asking Question About The 12 Steps: This introduces the steps to patients and allows them to voice any questions and concerns. For instance, The 12 Steps encourage reliance on a spiritual experience – by establishing a relationship with a Power greater than ourselves. But many groups give individuals the freedom to choose their own version of a “Higher Power.” This choice often helps patients let go of any religious resentments or pre-conceived prejudices toward spiritual practices.

Risk factors for developing problems with alcohol arise from many interconnected factors, including your genetics, how you were raised, your social environment, and your emotional health. Some racial groups, such as American Indians and Native Alaskans, are more at risk than others of developing drinking problems or alcohol addiction. People who have a family history of alcoholism or who associate closely with heavy drinkers are more likely to develop drinking problems. Finally, those who suffer from a mental health problem such as anxiety, depression, or bipolar disorder are also particularly at risk, because alcohol is often used to self-medicate.


Clear communication by parents about the negative effects of alcohol, as well as about their expectations regarding drug use, has been found to significantly decrease alcohol use in teens. Adequate parental supervision has also been found to be a deterrent to underage alcohol abuse. Alcohol, and other drug use, has been found to occur most often between the hours of 3 p.m. and 6 p.m., immediately after school and prior to parents' arrival at home from work. Teen participation in extracurricular activities has therefore been revealed to be an important prevention measure for the use of alcohol in this age group. Parents can also help educate teens about appropriate coping and stress-management strategies. For example, 15- to 16-year-olds who use religion to cope with stress tend to use drugs significantly less often and have fewer problems as a result of drinking than their peers who do not use religion to cope.
Set in beautiful Calistoga, California, Duffy's Napa Valley Rehab is a comprehensive treatment center where men and women can come to heal from addictions of all kinds. At Duffy's, residents are empowered to break free from chemical dependency and gain the skills they need to live the healthy, vibrant lives they deserve. For more information please call (866) 869-3318
Some people don’t like or are not interested in the 12-Step model, even with the variations above or through organizations that facilitate the 12-Step model. Some people don’t like basing their recovery on the idea that they cannot control their addiction, when there is evidence that there are ways of practicing internal control over the recovery process.
At secular meetings there is generally much more acceptance of medication-assisted recovery, much less emphasis on deficits in "moral character," and no prayer.  The focus is present-centered, avoiding "war stories," and pragmatic:  "how am I staying sober today?  What tools am I using?" Participants are also generally not required to label themselves as addicts or alcoholics, which can be refreshing for many people new to recovery.  In LifeRing, "crosstalk" is a key element of meetings, so folks in recovery are sharing their strategies for success.

A large body of evidence indicates that maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy contributes adversely to a fetus's development. Abnormalities in infants and children associated with maternal alcohol consumption may include prenatal and postnatal physical retardation, neurological deficits (e.g., impaired attention control), mental retardation, behavioral problems (e.g., impulsivity), skull or brain malformations, and facial malformations (e.g., a thin upper lip and elongated flattened midface). These abnormalities, influenced by maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy, are referred to as fetal alcohol effects (FAEs), or fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) if a sufficient number of effects are apparent in the child.
Recently some researchers have suggested that there are two distinct types of alcoholism. According to these researchers, type 1 alcoholism develops in adulthood, often in the early twenties. It is most often associated with the desire to relieve stress and anxiety and is not associated with any criminal or antisocial behavior. Type 2 alcoholism develops earlier, usually during the teenage years. Drinking is done primarily to get high. Type 2 alcoholism is associated with violence, destructiveness, and other criminal and antisocial behavior. Those who study alcoholism do not universally accept the distinction between these two types of alcoholism. Research continues in this area.
Mike, I applaud you for this excellent treatise supporting the relevance of 12-Step recovery in modern addiction treatment.  Upon careful study, the goal is to achieve "A A" = autonomy and agency.  That this method is unwaveringly spelled out, is freely and widely available, requires no Prior Auth or co-pay, has no drug-drug interactions or side effects and enjoys a success rate commensurate with all other offerings is compelling.  For some validated evidence of things that work in recovery (including 12-Step) I invite you to visit our (RRI) website.
Alcohol misuse and dependence are primarily diagnosed through the use of clinical screening surveys. Several hundred such surveys exist, and they vary in the number and nature of questions they ask. Some of the more common scientifically-validated questionnaires include the Michigan Alcohol Screening Test (MAST), a shorter version called the Brief MAST, the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), and a commonly employed, quick survey called the CAGE questionnaire. These surveys ask a range of questions about frequency of drinking, problems that result, and ability to stop.
Not all alcohol abusers become full-blown alcoholics, but it is a big risk factor. Sometimes alcoholism develops suddenly in response to a stressful change, such as a breakup, retirement, or another loss. Other times, it gradually creeps up on you as your tolerance to alcohol increases. If you’re a binge drinker or you drink every day, the risks of developing alcoholism are greater.

Mike Superb per usual Excellent elucidation of Twelve Step Facillitation and the Principles of AA unfortunately prior posters critical of AA don't share my Experience with that Fellowship AA recommends that members seek out Docs with understanding of the Disease of Addiction It cautions about the use of benzos  hypnotics and MJ Maintenance AA does not oppose ANY OF THE MEDICATIONS that you have described  I have encountered some problem in that regard with NA 
We found two Editors' Choice data recovery apps for Windows: Kroll Ontrack EasyRecovery and Stellar Phoenix Windows Data Recovery. Ontrack was the best performer in our tests, very slightly outclassing Stellar Phoenix in the number of files it recovered, but Stellar Phoenix has by far the best interface of anything we tried. On the Mac side Alsoft DiskWarrior is an Editors' Choice, for its ability to rebuild entire Mac directories. Prosoft Data Rescue is an excellent choice for getting back the odd document or spreadsheet that you accidentally deleted from your Mac.
Drinking too much damages the circulation by causing consistent high blood pressure. It also causes cardiomyopathy, or drooping of the heart muscle, which reduces the ability of the heart to effectively pump blood throughout the body. Nutrient deficiency can lead to anemia. Other problems with blood can lead to clots, causing strokes or heart attacks.

Cirrhosis of the liver refers to a disease in which normal liver cells are replaced by scar tissue caused by alcohol and viral hepatitis B and C. This disease leads to abnormalities in the liver's ability to handle toxins and blood flow, causing internal bleeding, kidney failure, mental confusion, coma, body fluid accumulation, and frequent infections.
Increased incidence of domestic violence, sexual assault and rape, and associated health consequences (including post-traumatic stress disorder). These crimes are often committed by people who are intoxicated by alcohol. People who depend on alcohol regularly drink until they are drunk and are thus frequently in states which increase the likelihood of these experiences.
Alcohol use disorder (which includes a level that's sometimes called alcoholism) is a pattern of alcohol use that involves problems controlling your drinking, being preoccupied with alcohol, continuing to use alcohol even when it causes problems, having to drink more to get the same effect, or having withdrawal symptoms when you rapidly decrease or stop drinking.
Most Twelve Step participants view addiction as a lifelong disease and see the Twelve Steps as their new design for living. When people whose lives have been affected by addiction work the Twelve Steps, they can better sort out the things which they have no control over, and the things for which they are responsible. Group meetings offer a safe place to share one's experience, strength and hope, and to receive support and fellowship.
NOTE: This article is based on research that utilizes the sources cited here as well as the collective experience of the Lab Tests Online Editorial Review Board. This article is periodically reviewed by the Editorial Board and may be updated as a result of the review. Any new sources cited will be added to the list and distinguished from the original sources used. To access online sources, copy and paste the URL into your browser.
Chemically, alcohol tends to decrease the chemical activity of substances that affect the nervous system, to inhibit behavior (gamma aminobutyric acid, also called GABA signaling) and increase the activity of pleasure-seeking processes (glutamate). That can result in people being less inhibited in their words and actions and more likely to engage in immediately pleasurable activities even if they are unsafe. Even light drinkers can experience shrinking of parts of the brain. Intoxication with alcohol can be characterized by slurred speech, clumsiness, sleepiness, headaches, distorted senses, lapses in memory, nausea, vomiting, and loss of consciousness.
This may be due to the fact that the data stored on the device has been corrupted, either a segment of the binary data is gone or the data has been overwritten by another file. Most file recovery software will find the remnants of theses corrupted files. However, because they are incomplete it is very unlikely the file will open. When it comes to the Seagate file recovery suite, there are some cases where a file was found by the software and is labeled as “Good” integrity, but may be a corrupt file.
One failing that bothered us in all these apps—including our top picks—is that they didn't even warn us that we couldn't recover files from an SSD. It's easy for an app to tell whether a drive uses spinning-platter or SSD technology, and easy to tell whether TRIM technology is active in a drive. All of the software we reviewed, both on the Mac and PC, misleadingly told us that they were able to recover deleted files from SSDs—and then disappointed us by providing corrupt and unusable files instead of the ones we wanted. We hope that the next generation of data recovery software is redesigned to make it clear that we can't hope for file recovery on SSDs unless the deleted files are safely in the Recycle Bin—where, of course, they're easy to find without using recovery software.

While Wilson and Smith credited their sobriety to working with alcoholics under the auspices of the Oxford Group, a Group associate pastor sermonized against Wilson and his alcoholic Groupers for forming a "secret, ashamed sub-group" engaged in "divergent works".[19] By 1937, Wilson separated from the Oxford Group. AA Historian Ernest Kurtz described the split:[19]
Feeling a "kinship of common suffering" and, though drunk, Wilson attended his first Group gathering. Within days, Wilson admitted himself to the Charles B. Towns Hospital after drinking four beers on the way—the last alcohol he ever drank. Under the care of William Duncan Silkworth (an early benefactor of AA), Wilson's detox included the deliriant belladonna.[16] At the hospital a despairing Wilson experienced a bright flash of light, which he felt to be God revealing himself.[17] Following his hospital discharge Wilson joined the Oxford Group and recruited other alcoholics to the Group. Wilson's early efforts to help others become sober were ineffective, prompting Silkworth to suggest that Wilson place less stress on religion and more on "the science" of treating alcoholism. Wilson's first success came during a business trip to Akron, Ohio, where he was introduced to Robert Smith, a surgeon and Oxford Group member who was unable to stay sober. After thirty days of working with Wilson, Smith drank his last drink on 10 June 1935, the date marked by AA for its anniversaries.[18]
After the individual is no longer drinking and has passed through withdrawal, the next steps involve helping the individual avoid relapsing and a return to drinking. This phase of treatment is referred to as rehabilitation. It can continue for a lifetime. Many programs incorporate the family into rehabilitation therapy, because the family has likely been severely affected by the patient's drinking. Some therapists believe that family members, in an effort to deal with their loved one's drinking problem, develop patterns of behavior that unintentionally support or enable the patient's drinking. This situation is referred to as co-dependence. These patterns should addressed in order to help successfully treat a person's alcoholism.
Relapse can be avoided by getting sufficient aftercare. Oftentimes, aftercare involves a peer support group, ongoing therapy, and even a maintenance medication like naltrexone, which reduces or eliminates cravings. Support from family and friends is also a very important part of sustained recovery, so finding a supportive home environment – through a sober home, moving to a new house, or clearing drugs and alcohol out of one’s existing home – is very important. Working with an evidence-based treatment program can help one gather resources about nearby or online support groups and therapists.
The program is available for patients who are otherwise healthy; specifically, specifically, those who do not have acute or significant heart disease, insulin dependent diabetes that is well controlled with an A1C at or above 7, sleep apnea not controlled or a Body Mass Index (BMI) over 42, as individuals with these conditions are best suited recovering in a hospital setting.
In keeping with AA's Eighth Tradition, the Central Office employs special workers who are compensated financially for their services, but their services do not include traditional "12th Step" work of working with alcoholics in need.[31] All 12th Step calls that come to the Central Office are handed to sober AA members who have volunteered to handle these calls. It also maintains service centers, which coordinate activities such as printing literature, responding to public inquiries, and organizing conferences. Other International General Service Offices (Australia, Costa Rica, Russia, etc.) are independent of AA World Services in New York.[32]

Michael M. Miller, MD, FASAM, FAPA, is the medical director of the Herrington Recovery Center at Rogers Memorial Hospital-Oconomowoc. He is a board-certified general psychiatrist and addiction psychiatrist. Dr. Miller has practiced addiction medicine for more than 30 years and is certified in addiction medicine by the American Board of Addiction Medicine. Dr. Miller is also an at-large director of the American Board of Addiction Medicine and The ABAM Foundation. He is a past president of ASAM.
Alcohol dependency occurs on a continuum. Many Australians are only moderately or mildly dependent on alcohol (e.g. they may find it difficult to stop drinking once they start). They do not exhibit physical withdrawals like those with severe alcohol dependence, and do not consider their drinking patterns problematic. This may be because the major health and social consequences of alcohol dependence (with the exclusion of violence) do not begin when an individual first becomes alcohol dependent. For example, it may take years for an individual who is alcohol dependent to have financial or relationship problems as a result of drinking. In many cases chronic excessive drinking may have no immediate health and social consequences.
"We will comprehend the word serenity and we will know peace." (Alcoholics Anonymous, p. 84)          Just For Today          Life takes on new meaning in A.A. To watch people recover, to see them help others, to watch loneliness vanish, to see a fellowship grow up about you, to have a host of friends - this is an experience not to be missed. (from the 12&12 and Alcoholics Anonymous)          

...more and more, Bill discovered that new adherents could get sober by believing in each other and in the strength of this group. Men [no women were members yet] who had proven over and over again, by extremely painful experience, that they could not get sober on their own had somehow become more powerful when two or three of them worked on their common problem. This, then—whatever it was that occurred among them—was what they could accept as a power greater than themselves. They did not need the Oxford Group.


While admitting that the oft-cited success rate of 5 percent “isn’t great,” Dr. Drew Pinsky, a celebrity doctor and addiction medicine specialist argued that “the fact it, [Alcoholics Anonymous] does work when people do it,” saying the real success rate is as high as 12 percent. The American Society of Addiction Medicine speculated that approximately 10 percent of the people who become part of a 12-Step program enjoy long-term success in their recovery. In 2014, AA self-reported that 27 percent of the 6,000 members who participated in an internal study were sober for less than a year; 24 percent retained their sobriety for up to five years, and 13 percent lasted for as long as a decade. Fourteen percent of the study’s participants stayed sober between 10 and 20 years, and 22 percent reported remaining sober for more than two decades.
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