Since Alcoholics Anonymous was founded in the 1930s, 12-step treatment models have gained widespread acceptance among psychologists, therapists, social workers and medical doctors. Twelve-step groups like AA have also become a gold standard of recovery for many members of the general public. What makes the 12 steps such an effective model for drug and alcohol rehab? The psychology behind these principles indicates that these non-profit, mutual self-help groups fulfill several important needs, such as:

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PaRC's team of physicians and specialists evaluate, treat, educate and guide the chronic pain sufferer through the process of pain and addiction recovery. Two primary goals of PaRC's Pain Recovery Program are pain relief to the highest degree possible and stopping or reversing the negative impact and downward course of a patient's pain condition, lifestyle, work, interpersonal relationships and overall wellbeing. 
SMART Recovery: (Self Management for Addiction Recovery): SMART Recovery is a 4-point program based on cognitive behavioral therapy and seeks to empower the individual through education and practical techniques. It is present-focused and does not use the term “disease” when referring to addiction. Attendees may use medications, which are not encouraged in AA.
If you are in need of immediate assistance, please call a counselor for immediate help 800-839-1686. Alcohol and Drug Rehab Counselors specializing in alcohol addiction drug treatment and substance abuse issues are standing by ready to listen and address any questions or concerns that you may have. Alcoholics Resource Center is supported by caring individuals with a genuine desire to help you achieve sobriety. Alcoholics Resource Center guides individuals struggling with alcohol addiction to AA meetings and recovery that helps prevent painful relapse. We offer many resources that can help individuals identify problematic behavioral patterns and help establish the best approach to fully overcome the challenging obstacles of alcohol addiction.
An analysis in the United Kingdom in 2010 found that overall, alcohol was found to be the most harmful drug to the person consuming and to others. However, this study does not mean that substances other than alcohol have no harmful consequences; heroin, cocaine, and methamphetamine were found to be the most harmful drugs to individuals themselves. In addition, this study did not address the issue of polydrug abuse, which is a common phenomenon in individuals abusing substances. The combination of alcohol and other substances can lead to serious adverse effects, and such combinations were not explored in this study. [12]

Alcoholics Anonymous publishes several books, reports, pamphlets, and other media, including a periodical known as the AA Grapevine.[97] Two books are used primarily: Alcoholics Anonymous (the "Big Book") and Twelve Steps and Twelve Traditions, the latter explaining AA's fundamental principles in depth. The full text of each of these two books is available on the AA website at no charge.


Because Alcoholics Anonymous was exclusive to people who struggled with alcohol addiction, a vast array of other programs were formed to aid and support those in recovery from other addictive disorders. These include the following groups: ACA –Adult Children of Alcoholics Al-Anon/Alateen (for friends and families of alcoholics) CA –Cocaine Anonymous CLA –Clutterers Anonymous CMA –Crystal Meth Anonymous Co-Anon (for friends and family of addicts) CoDA –Co-Dependents Anonymous (for people working to end patterns of dysfunctional relationships and develop functional and healthy relationships) COSA (an auxiliary group of Sex Addicts Anonymous) COSLAA –CoSex and Love Addicts Anonymous DA –Debtors Anonymous EA –Emotions Anonymous, for recovery from mental and emotional illness FA –Families Anonymous, for relatives and friends of addicts FA –Food Addicts in Recovery Anonymous FAA –Food Addicts Anonymous GA –Gamblers Anonymous Gam-Anon/Gam-A-Teen (for friends and family members of problem gamblers) HA –Heroin Anonymous MA –Marijuana Anonymous NA –Narcotics Anonymous N/A –Neurotics Anonymous (for recovery from mental and emotional illness) Nar-Anon (for friends and family members of addicts) NicA –Nicotine Anonymous OA –Overeaters Anonymous OLGA –Online Gamers Anonymous PA –Pills Anonymous (for recovery from prescription pill addiction) SA –Sexaholics Anonymous SA –Smokers Anonymous SAA –Sex Addicts Anonymous SCA –Sexual Compulsives Anonymous SIA –Survivors of Incest Anonymous SLAA –Sex and Love Addicts Anonymous SRA –Sexual Recovery Anonymous UA –Underearners Anonymous WA –Workaholics Anonymous

Before you do anything, it’s important to know whether your friend or loved one has an alcohol addiction. Alcohol use disorder, or alcoholism, is more than just drinking too much from time to time. Sometimes alcohol as coping mechanism or social habit may look like alcoholism, but it’s not the same. People with alcohol use disorder don’t drink in moderation, even if they say they’re only having one drink. To learn more, read about alcoholism and its symptoms.
Another important point about 12 Step programs is their cost and accessibility.  What other chronic lifelong disease has an equally accessible and cost effective (free) intervention?    Like any disease, part of our job as physicians is to recommend effective treatment which our patients can both access and afford.  I'd like for my patients to be able to access and afford all useful modalities of addiction treatment, but here at least is one they can all use.   
Based on combined data from SAMHSA's 2004–2005 National Surveys on Drug Use & Health, the rate of past-year alcohol dependence or abuse among persons aged 12 or older varied by level of alcohol use: 44.7% of past month heavy drinkers, 18.5% binge drinkers, 3.8% past month non-binge drinkers, and 1.3% of those who did not drink alcohol in the past month met the criteria for alcohol dependence or abuse in the past year. Males had higher rates than females for all measures of drinking in the past month: any alcohol use (57.5% vs. 45%), binge drinking (30.8% vs. 15.1%), and heavy alcohol use (10.5% vs. 3.3%), and males were twice as likely as females to have met the criteria for alcohol dependence or abuse in the past year (10.5% vs. 5.1%).[83]
Narcotics Anonymous (NA). Narcotics Anonymous is an organization that adapted the same principles as Alcoholics Anonymous. Just like AA, NA emphasizes a spiritual connection to a higher power. The program is targeted towards men and women for whom drugs have become a major problem. These people come together regularly in support group meetings and help one another to maintain abstinence as they recover from their addictions.
It's interesting to read the comments, pro and con about AA and other 12 step programs. Much of which I agree with. What I did not see mentioned is that AA doesn't enter into this debate about how 'successful or effective' their program is; because they aren't selling or promoting anything. Period. AA offers a spiritually based program to help one find a connection with a higher power that many have found helpful in staying sober. Period. All this other chatter and debate is not what AA is about or even pretends to offer. This debate about the success of a program that is a voluntary offering of a chance to live sober is, frankly, ridiculous. It's truly a take it or leave it kind of deal. If the court orders you to go to AA and you feel you're rights are being violated then you might be better served taking that up with the court then blaming AA. There are three facts that are not legitimately debatable: 1) Many people have gone to AA, got sober and remain that way. 2) Many people have gone to AA and decided they didn't want to go back. 3) Addiction will kill some people who are afflicted regardless of the best efforts of the best of us.
Just as easily as data can be lost, it can be recovered intact in most cases with the right data recovery solution. The free Disk Drill is the new generation of Pandora Data Recovery and inherits its most prominent file recovery functionality and tops them up with endless modern algorithms that increase data recovery efficiency, deliver more concise results and enjoyable user experience...
PaRC's team of physicians and specialists evaluate, treat, educate and guide the chronic pain sufferer through the process of pain and addiction recovery. Two primary goals of PaRC's Pain Recovery Program are pain relief to the highest degree possible and stopping or reversing the negative impact and downward course of a patient's pain condition, lifestyle, work, interpersonal relationships and overall wellbeing. 
The fact that Recuva is on the top of the best data recovery software list, may not come as a surprise to the most of you. This data recovery tool has the ability to restore files from hard drives, DVD or CDs, memory cards, and external drives. There are tons of free file recovery software around but few of them come close to Recuva when it comes to hard drive and photo recovery actions. For those who don’t, Piriform’s Recuva recovery perform does its work by searching for unreferenced data. It’s known for getting back lost directory structure as well as renaming two files of the same name while performing the data recovery.

If you are trying to save the files that SFRS has recovered to another hard drive and it appears that SFRS gives you a message that the drive needs to be formatted, it means that the drive you want to save to is “raw” and not ready to have files saved to it. SFRS is not actually giving you the message, but your OS (Windows) is. To be able to save data to a hard drive it must first be “partitioned” and “formatted” with a file system such as Windows NTFS or Mac HFS. To format a hard drive means to delete any information on the drive and to set up a file system so your operating system can read data from, and write data to, the drive.
Featuring a delightful simple interface, Disk Drill make file recovery very simple. There's no need to fiddle with complex options, and the program can be used to scan local as well as removable drives and memory cards. Performance a scan of your chosen drive and you're presented with a list of recoverable files, grouped by type, and you have the option of previewing image files in advance. It's a simple, effective tool with a high success rate.
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Chuck Lorre's Mom (2013-), follows dysfunctional daughter/mother duo Christy and Bonnie Plunkett, who are estranged for years while simultaneously struggling with addiction. They attempt to pull their lives and relationships together by trying to stay sober and visiting Alcoholics Anonymous. The show also explores themes of alcoholism, drug addiction and relapse.
One review of AA warned of detrimental iatrogenic effects of twelve-step philosophy and concluded that AA uses many methods that are also used by cults.[93] A subsequent study concluded, however, that AA's program bore little resemblance to religious cults because the techniques used appeared beneficial.[94] Another study found that the AA program's focus on admission of having a problem increases deviant stigma and strips members of their previous cultural identity, replacing it with the deviant identity.[95] A survey of group members, however, found they had a bicultural identity and saw AA's program as a complement to their other national, ethnic, and religious cultures.[96]
In the early and mild stages of alcohol dependence individuals may find it difficult to stop drinking or feel anxious when they are unable to drink. At this stage, the health and social consequences of alcohol dependence are largely absent. Mild alcohol dependency often gradually leads to more frequent consumption of larger quantities of alcohol, which increases alcohol dependence.
Twelve-Step Recovery addresses the psychology of the person with addiction as well as the individual’s spirituality--his/her values, his/her connectedness to others, and his/her willingness to engage with others and humbly ask for help. The process of change in Twelve-Step Recovery starts with an acceptance that when friends or loved ones point out that things are amiss in one’s life, they are likely correct, and things have likely become unmanageable. And while taking personal responsibility and accepting accountability for one’s actions are considered key steps, Twelve-Step Recovery outlines that excessive self-reliance and the firm stance that “I can get myself out of this,” and “I know what to do about this,” will be roadblocks to recovery from addiction. “Getting out of oneself” and recognizing that one doesn’t have all the answers, and humbly asking for help from another human being—from a health professional or from a lay person—are behaviors and behavioral styles that are promoted by Alcoholics Anonymous and related “Twelve-Step” programs of peer support.
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Tell your loved one that you’re worried they’re drinking too much, and let them know you want to be supportive. Be prepared to face a negative reaction. Try to roll with any resistance to your suggestions. The person may be in denial, and they may even react angrily to your attempts. Do not take it personally. Give them time and space to make an honest decision, and listen to what they have to say.
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Alcohol addiction is a gradual process that occurs within the human brain. When alcohol is consumed, it alters the levels of certain chemicals in the brain, mainly gamma-aminobutyric acid, or GABA, and dopamine. GABA monitors and controls a person's impulsivity, and frequently drinking copious amounts of alcohol alters this chemical's production, often making people more impulsive and less aware of what they are doing. Dopamine is one of the chemicals in the brain that, when released, causes pleasurable feelings like happiness, joy, or even euphoria. As more and more alcohol is consumed on a frequent basis, the brain begins to grow accustomed to this chemical imbalance. If an alcoholic tries to stop drinking, then the brain is deprived of the alcohol's effect, which results in unpleasant withdrawal symptoms such as sweating, shaking, tremors, or even hallucination.
P.S. Okay, I get your feedback that sometimes free data recovery software just don't work that well. If you are willing to try a paid data recovery program, I recommend Stellar Data Recovery - they have both Windows and macOS versions and support recovering data from mobile devices like iPhones and Android phones as well. Free trails are available but won't allow you to save your files (if found after the scan). Also, your success rate may vary.
If your loss was a little less recent, Disk Drill free file recovery software can also dig much deeper. Deep Scan does a thorough search of your entire drive to find and reconstruct lost files. Disk Drill's Deep Scan feature recognizes more than 350 file types. This list is growing and we gladly accept customer requests for new formats! Disk Drill is a free download for Windows 7, 8, 10.
There are a few factors that play into how long a file recovery takes. The larger the size of the drive that is being scanned is, the longer it will take. Smaller drives (under 500Gb) may take anywhere from 30 minutes to a few hours to scan, larger drives (over 500Gb) may take multiple hours and even a day or two for Tb size drives. If a drive is damaged or corrupted, it will also add time to the overall recovery process. If the scan is progressing, do not stop the scan because you think it is taking too long for larger drives.
Mike, I applaud you for this excellent treatise supporting the relevance of 12-Step recovery in modern addiction treatment.  Upon careful study, the goal is to achieve "A A" = autonomy and agency.  That this method is unwaveringly spelled out, is freely and widely available, requires no Prior Auth or co-pay, has no drug-drug interactions or side effects and enjoys a success rate commensurate with all other offerings is compelling.  For some validated evidence of things that work in recovery (including 12-Step) I invite you to visit our (RRI) website.

Alcoholics Anonymous is a fellowship of men and women who share their experience, strength and hope with each other that they may solve their common problem and help others to recover from alcoholism. The only requirement for membership is a desire to stop drinking. There are no dues or fees for AA membership; we are self-supporting through our own contributions. AA is not allied with any sect, denomination, politics, organization or institution; does not wish to engage in any controversy, neither endorses nor opposes any causes. Our primary purpose is to stay sober and help other alcoholics to achieve sobriety.

Alcohol addiction is a gradual process that occurs within the human brain. When alcohol is consumed, it alters the levels of certain chemicals in the brain, mainly gamma-aminobutyric acid, or GABA, and dopamine. GABA monitors and controls a person's impulsivity, and frequently drinking copious amounts of alcohol alters this chemical's production, often making people more impulsive and less aware of what they are doing. Dopamine is one of the chemicals in the brain that, when released, causes pleasurable feelings like happiness, joy, or even euphoria. As more and more alcohol is consumed on a frequent basis, the brain begins to grow accustomed to this chemical imbalance. If an alcoholic tries to stop drinking, then the brain is deprived of the alcohol's effect, which results in unpleasant withdrawal symptoms such as sweating, shaking, tremors, or even hallucination.
When you're putting money into your health, your future and your family's happiness, you need to make sure you're making the right decision for your Cheyenne alcohol and drug abuse rehabilitation clinic. While the best alternative may still be to speak to our hotline advisors so they can discuss your individual requirements, reading how others have reviewed or rated some of the addiction rehab clinics in or around your area is another great way to start.
Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) is an international mutual aid fellowship[1] whose stated purpose is to enable its members to "stay sober and help other alcoholics achieve sobriety."[1][2][3] It was founded in 1935 by Bill Wilson and Bob Smith in Akron, Ohio. With other early members, Bill Wilson and Bob Smith developed AA's Twelve Step program of spiritual and character development. AA's initial Twelve Traditions were introduced in 1946 to help the fellowship be stable and unified while disengaged from "outside issues" and influences.
Ten health risks of chronic heavy drinking A wide range of factors determines how the body responds to chronic heavy drinking. A single binge-drinking episode can result in significant harm, and excessive consumption of alcohol is the fourth-leading preventable cause of death in the U.S. Learn about the ten diseases most commonly linked to heavy drinking here. Read now
For people in the first stage of alcohol use (having access but not having yet used alcohol), preventive measures are used. Therefore, limiting access to alcohol or other drugs, addressing any risk factors of the alcohol consumer or family, as well as optimal parental supervision for youth and expression regarding expectations are often recommended. The approach to those who have experimented with alcohol should not be minimized by mental health professionals, since infrequent use can progress to the more serious stages of alcohol use if not addressed. Therefore, professionals recommend that the alcohol-consuming individual be thoroughly educated about the effects and risks of alcohol, that fair but firm limits be set on the use of alcohol, and that the user be referred for brief counseling, a self-help group, and/or family support group. People who have progressed to the more advanced stages of alcoholism are typically treated intensively, using a combination of the medical, individual, and familial interventions already described.
Is Twelve-Step Recovery an antiquated concept or intervention? Many addiction specialist physicians contend that while the majority of continuing medical education in addiction, aimed at sharing novel breakthroughs and improving practice and outcomes, addresses pharmacotherapies, it is the psychosocial therapies which warrant at least equal attention. Some addiction medicine physicians are concerned that not only do biological interventions predominate in continuing education curriculums, but they dominate graduate medical education in addiction, and some of these physicians are concerned that fellowship training programs in addiction as well as residency programs in primary care, psychiatry, and other medical specialties should include training about and in Twelve Step Facilitation and on Twelve-Step Recovery in order for the physician to have an appropriately well-rounded educational experience and a full skill and knowledge base in the rapidly-growing specialty of addiction medicine.
Steps one through three deal with the individual’s acceptance of their inability to control their addiction alone and the need of support to remain abstinent. Steps four through nine teach the individual to take responsibility for their own actions and characteristics in order to create change in their life. Steps four, six and eight require self-reflection while steps five, seven and nine are the application of those reflections. The focus in steps 10 through 12 is on maintaining recovery. Each step builds upon the previous step in a progressive course of action.

While this provides a blanket of comfort and security to the many thousands of people it helps, the secrecy has not gone over well with the more scientifically minded in the treatment community. The success and acceptance of the program has clashed with the desire for evidence and statistics, leading to Pacific Standard saying that AA is not a form of professional treatment, and it offers mixed results; but as a “mutual aid organization,” the 12-Step method comes into its own. Similarly, The Atlantic goes so far as to call Alcoholics Anonymous a pseudoscientific organization, one that dictated the treatment conversation for generations (to the point where its claimed success rate of 75 percent went unquestioned for decades), but has overstayed its privileged place in American culture.

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